Property:Proposed Milestone Abstract

From IEEE Milestones Wiki

200-250 word abstract describing the significance of the technical achievement being proposed, the person(s) involved, historical context, humanitarian and social impact, as well as any possible controversies the advocate might need to review.

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Showing 20 pages using this property.
"The 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics honors “groundbreaking inventions in the field of laser physics” on opposite ends of the time and intensity scale." "Arthur Ashkin of the United States invented “optical tweezers,” which use low-power laser beams to manipulate tiny objects such as living cells." "Working at Bell Labs in 1970, Ashkin first showed that the pressure of lasers emitting tightly focused, stable beams of light could move small particles. The following year, he showed that an upwards pointing laser beam could provide enough of a push on a small particle to offset the force of gravity. But that levitation found only limited use because other forces such as Brownian motion in water can easily push such a small particle out of the laser beam’s path. In 1986, Ashkin and a Bell Labs team including Steven Chu developed optical tweezers. Their invention featured a short-focus lens that created a strong gradient in the laser beam capable of trapping particles from tens of nanometers to tens of micrometers, even in water. That technique was soon used to demonstrate feats including laser cooling of atoms, for which Steven Chu shared the 1997 Nobel Prize in Physics." [Ref 1] 2018 Nobel Physics Prize for Pioneering Laser Work The honorees, recognized for work on ultrashort, ultrapowerful laser pulses, and delicate laser manipulation of tiny biological structures, include the first woman to get the physics prize since 1963 Jeff Hecht 02 Oct 2018  +
At the 1891 International Electrotechnical Exhibition, Oskar von Miller, Michael Dolivo-Dobrowolsky from AEG, Germany and Charles Eugene Lancelot Brown from Oerlikon, Switzerland, demonstrated the world’s first long distance (175km), high voltage (15kV), highly efficient (75%) Lauffen-Frankfurt electrical energy transmission of 300 HP, using the three-phase alternating current. At that time (i.e., in the late 1880s and in the 1890s) the quite well developed and widely used direct current (DC) electricity production and distribution technology limited the transmission distances to single kilometers and required the construction of many local low-power plants, supplying consumers divided into separate networks, forming isolated islands. This practically excluded the use of the hydroelectric power, which needed to be transmitted over long distances. On the other hand, the new alternating current (AC) technology, which due to a possibility of transformation the energy to high voltages for the long-distance transmission, was not yet accepted and met with strong resistance. The 1891 Lauffen-Frankfurt electrical energy transmission provided convincing and necessary evidence of the economic and technical feasibility of supplying power generated at remote locations to industrial and residential centers. This demonstration directly influenced the establishment of the dominant worldwide role of electric power transmission using three-phase alternating current systems.  +
Commissioned in 1973, The Heavy Ion Accelerator Facility (HIAF) is a unique scientific facility that combines voltages of up to 15 million volts with some of the most accurate beam control and detection technology in the world. HIAF consists of a 15 million volt tandem electrostatic accelerator with an additional 6 million volt linear accelerator loop. Driven by Australia’s largest and highest energy ion accelerator, ions ranging from hydrogen to plutonium can be accelerated. Eleven adaptable beam lines and myriad detector systems allow a wide variety of experiments to be performed. <br><br> This facility has aided humanity in achieving technical excellence in diverse domains throughout its history. No wonder that researchers from all over the globe come to use the power and precision of the Heavy-Ion Accelerator to explore a wide range of topics, from exploration of fundamental dynamics of nuclear reactions to analysis of environmental samples, dark matter detectors to developing new medical therapies.  +
Discussions about packet-switched networks had been going on for a decade; however, “inter-networking” of distinct networks really started in late 1972 with Robert Kahn’s ideas for interoperation that were elaborated more concretely with Vinton Cerf in 1973. <br> <br> In late 1973, Cerf and Kahn submitted their paper “A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication” for publication in the <i>IEEE Transactions on Communications</i> scientific journal. Appearing in May 1974, the paper described the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) that supported the interconnection of multiple packet-switched networks to form an internet. Split later into TCP and the Internet Protocol (IP), TCP and IP became core components of the global Internet of today. Launched operationally in 1983, the 2023 Internet now links about 5.3 billion people and many billions more devices, many of which enable access to millions of applications of the World Wide Web (WWW) that rides atop the Internet.<br> <br> The Internet’s development inspired or grew new businesses that made hardware and software products for implementing and using the Internet such as routers, optical fiber networks, Wi-Fi, cloud computing services, and many other WWW-enabled products such as search engines and social media applications. Since 1973, many innovators have created the protocols, networks, devices, and businesses that now make up the global Internet.<br> <br> TCP and IP were contemporary with two other internetworking proposals: X.25/X.75 from the ITU-T (then the CCITT), and the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) protocols from the Organization for International Standardization (ISO). Over time, the competition among these choices settled largely in favor of the Internet’s TCP/IP.  +
During 1951-52, Grace Hopper earned a Ph.D. in both mathematics and mathematical physics from Yale. As a programmer, she invented the A-0 system, an early compiler. Grace Hopper wrote a series of specifications that functioned as a linker/loader and was called an A-0 Compiler. It was a pioneering achievement of Automatic Programming as well as a pioneering utility program for the management of subroutines. For each subroutine, programmers wrote some specs. The reason it got called a compiler was that each subroutine was given a "call word," because the subroutines were in a library, and when programmers pull stuff out of a library programmers compile things. It was designed to let people write quickly the specs for a mathematical program, one time usually a one-time execution, and get an answer fast. And the main purpose was to get programs out fast and get answers fast. Based on the A-0 compiler, Grace Hopper led teams that developed FLOW-MATIC, a computer language that led to COBOL(Common Business-Oriented Language). The A-0 Compiler influenced the development of Arithmetic and Business Programming Languages as well as COBOL and became the dominant high-level language for business, government, and military applications. These standardized, user-friendly innovations promoted wider, transformative adoption of computerization in modern life. Dr. Grace Murray Brewster Hopper (1906-1992): A legacy of innovation and service Grace Hopper was the recipient of more than 40 honorary degrees, and many scholarships, professorships, awards, and conferences are named in her honor. In 1972 she received Yale’s Wilbur Lucius Cross Medal. In 1991 President George Bush awarded Hopper the National Medal of Technology, the nation’s highest technology award; she was the first woman to be honored as an individual. In 1996 the Navy commissioned the U.S.S. Hopper, a guided missile destroyer. Kurt Beyer, author of “Grace Hopper and the Invention of the Information Age,” suggests that Hopper achieved so much attention and even “celebrity” late in life because a A congressman from Illinois saw an interview with Hopper on “60 Minutes” in 1983. After seeing the interview he successfully introduced a bill to have Hopper promoted to the rank of commodore. At the age of 79, Hopper retired as a rear admiral. She was the oldest serving officer in the U.S. Armed Forces. That same year she went to work as a senior consultant in public relations at the Digital Equipment Corporation, where she worked up until a year before her death in 1992. Hopper was buried with full military honors in Arlington National Cemetery. In 2016 Hopper posthumously received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation’s highest civilian honor, in recognition of her remarkable contributions to the field of computer science. 2-17-2017 - Yale News Karen N. Peart: 203-980-2222 The Compiler is one of the fundamental technologies in the history of computing. The invention of the compiler made it possible to write high-level computer programs, which in turn led to increased programmer productivity and reduced rates of error. This review examines the Milestone-Proposal for recognizing the invention of the compiler. “The compiler translated human-readable English keywords or commands into machine-readable instructions or code, thus creating well-defined communication between human programmers and computers. Ragib Hasan, Ph.D., IEEE Member Grace Hopper was one of the first programmers on the MARK1. In 1952 she invented the COMPILER, which translated readable English keywords or commands into machine-readable instructions or code. Hopper’s FLOW_MATIC programming language to English commands and user-defined data names was used in the UNIVAC1 in 1957. Grace Hopper’s FLOW-MATIC compiler used in the UNIVAC1, helped shape the development of COBOL (COmmon Business Oriented Language) which became popular worldwide.  
During the 1960s, the US ballistic missile defense (BMD) community had developed a need for wideband observables technology to assess re-entry vehicles and decoys. In 1970, the ALCOR (ARPA-Lincoln C-Band Observables Radar) became operational at the Kwajalein Missile Range in the central Pacific. ALCOR served as a test facility for wideband radar techniques under development at Lincoln Laboratory and other organizations in the BMD community. The development of ALCOR from 1970 to 1987 was a significant technical achievement, as it was the first system to demonstrate feasibility and practicality of long-range wideband three-dimensional imaging of satellites from a ground-based radar. ALCOR’s first images were of the Soviet Salyut-1 space station, which were produced in 1971 using inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) techniques – those images are still classified and not available for public release. In 1973, ALCOR radar system images were used to diagnose deployment problems of the U.S. Skylab space station. In 1987, ALCOR demonstrated the first near real-time wideband waveform imaging of space objects. The ALCOR radar demonstrated a benefit to humanity as it provided ground-based wideband imaging technology for better understanding of re-entry vehicles, decoys, satellites, and space debris. Following the development of ALCOR, this wideband imaging technology was picked up worldwide. The German Research Establishment for Applied Science (FGAN) Research Institute for High Frequency Physics and Radar Techniques (FHR) Tracking and Imaging Radar (TIRA), built in the 1990s, uses comparable wideband technology and ISAR algorithms and today generates many space-object images that are viewable in the public domain.  +
Encryption is essential in protecting privacy of citizens in communication via the internet and many other communication channels. Additionally, cryptography is used to secure the remote control and management of devices and infrastructure critical in modern society: the electricity grid, the Internet itself, software updates in computers and appliances, control systems in cars, buses and trains, etc. Rijndael, after having been selected AES by NIST has played a central role worldwide to protect information from unauthorized access. Virtually all present-day systems that need cryptography use AES/Rijndael.  +
Honorary Professor Yasuharu Suematsu, Tokyo Institute of Technology, realized the single-mode semiconductor laser characterized by unwavering single-mode operations even under high-speed modulations, in the minimum-loss wavelength band suitable for ultra-high-capacity and long-haul optical fiber transmissions. Preferential laser materials in the minimum-loss-wavelength band for silica fibers, namely, the 1.5-µm region were also developed. Then, he realized the single-mode operation even under high-speed direct modulation in the wavelength band of 1.3 and 1.5 µm with basis of the long-wavelength laser material and the single-wavelength resonator. The invention was opened to industries and was intended for early commercialization of long-distance fiber communication systems. These achievements opened door for high-capacity optical fiber communications and contributed to the evolution of the Internet ICT society today. It is noted that some of the structures had been widely used for optical communication systems in later years. The pioneering work on long-wavelength single-mode lasers in optical fiber communications played a pivotal role in catapulting humanity into an era underscored by information and communication technology. In addition, an electrically-tunable single-mode semiconductor laser has been widely used as a light source for dense wavelength division multiplexing systems and for digital coherent communications. The achievement opened a door for broadband optical communications in global high-capacity networks, which constitute the backbone of the internet.  +
In 1976, having exhausted the optimization of the available manual and automatic (strowger) facilities, ANTEL’s technical section in charge of the growing Telex service--led by Juan Carlos Miguez and later by his assistant Rodolfo Fariello—boldly decided to commission the design and construction of a full- electronic program controlled exchange to serve the public traffic to the incipient electronic industry in Uruguay. Antel authorities approved the concept, which included an advanced payment to partially cover the long design and development phase. The system was specified and a consortium of CONTROLES (HW oriented) and INTERFASE (SW oriented) was selected in a public bid. A generation of brilliant Engineers--Juan Grompone, Nestor Mace, Jaime Jerusalmi, Enrique Salles, among others--educated in the public University UDELAR with mentorship from Professor Ricardo Perez, had founded those enterprises that took the challenge. Under ANTEL’s technical guidance, they successfully had the first 128-line prototype in service in 1980; quickly expanding to several 1024 units satisfying -through major international carriers- all international traffic demands and giving reliable service. In 1990, a similar system was configured as an X-25 packet switch providing national and international traffic; TCP/IP was incorporated in 1995, giving the country its first public access to Internet. Internet growth made those services unnecessary and they were decommissioned in 2012. This work is an exceptional proof of applying good Engineering principles to the construction of advanced products, with no previous knowledge or experience: just an appropriate specification of the needs and international standards to follow.  +
In the 90s, the UN, for humanitarian purposes, called for the establishment of radio services to spread education to people in less developed countries. No integrated circuits were available and, therefore, no digital receivers could be made for digital radio content services to address the UN recommendations. Telecom infrastructures did not exist; they were lacking powerful transmission means at continental level (Africa, India). Terrestrial transmissions (with medium/long waves) were possible to receive only at night, being very low reliable and not suitable for systematically planned student education. To solve this problem, the most viable solution to address UN call was to start satellite digital audio transmission which needed significant investments. However, without digital radio satellite receivers’ embodying integrated circuits technologies these investments, even if affordable, would be wasted then. To help that, in 1996 STMicroelectronics, thanks to years of background research and fabrication of test chips, devised three integrated circuits which were essential for satellite digital radio reception. These were instrumental to achieve frequency demodulation, baseband processing and compressed audio decoding. In 1997 they were fully functional and when put together achieved the radio receiver’s mass production by OEMs. Worldspace and Sirius XM Radio services adopted these and provided educational services in Africa, India, and then in USA. Today they are still in production and still used to listening to radio services in the whole USA.  +
In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the data traffic of optical fiber communication systems increased rapidly due to the explosive spread of the Internet, the increasing of the transmission capacity by the introduction of new multiplexing technology was required strongly. The optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) is a technology for transmitting multiple light with different wavelengths into an optical fiber. One of the key devices for realizing WDM transmission is an arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) wavelength multi/demultiplexer. NTT invented the AWG wavelength multi/demultiplexer using silica-based planar lightwave circuit technology in 1992. NEL and PIRI improved the AWG technology to mass production and commercialized in 1996. Since the silica-based AWG has many advantages, such as large wavelength channel scale, small size, mass productivity, long-term reliability and low cost, it has been adapted into the commercial optical fiber communication systems worldwide. As a result, silica-based AWG made a great contribution to the expansion of the transmission capacity of commercial optical fiber communication systems due to the introduction of WDM technology in the late 1990s. The transmission capacity per an optical fiber has increased dramatically from several tens to a hundred times. The silica-based AWGs have accelerated the expansion of transmission capacity and are now widely used in high-capacity WDM optical fiber networks worldwide.  +
It should be noted that when Ferdinand Braun discovered the rectifier effect in 1874, there was no need for a technical application. It was not until twelve years later, in 1886, that Heinrich Hertz was the first to succeed in experimentally generating and proving free electromagnetic waves. Even then, it took some time before the crystal rectifier effect was mastered to the point where a detector application for receiving radio waves could be used. The first one who has constructed and applied a semiconductor rectifier for the detection of electromagnetic waves has been Jagadis Chandra Bose in Kolkata, India. He used galena (lead sulfide) crystals contacted by a metal wire to detect millimeter waves. He reported this invention in the April 27, 1899, meeting of the Royal Society, London. Bose’s detector has been used in Marconi’s first transatlantic radio transmission facilitated by Ferdinand Brauns coupled resonant circuit. A major obstacle to the development of technical applications was the lack of theoretical understanding of the effect. It took more than fifty years after Braun’s discovery until in 1928 the works of Arnold Sommerfeld and Felix Bloch provided an understanding of the properties of solids on the basis of quantum mechanics. Finally, upon this basis Walter Schottky presented a semiconductor theory of the junction and peak rectifiers in 1939.  +
MARS-1 (Magnetic-electronic Automatic Reservation System 1) was the world’s first online real-time train seat reservation system, which was launched by the Japanese National Railways in 1960. Initially, this system issued tickets for 3,600 seats on four limited express trains that operated between Tokyo and Osaka. After that, it has been improved and used for over 60 years, and now has a high reliability with a utilization/operating rate of 99.999%, and the number of tickets issued by MARS reaches nearly 700 million each year. Japan’s population is approximately 130 million people, so each person on average is issued more than 5 tickets a year. This shows that MARS, in coordination with the Shinkansen system which is the main artery of passenger transportation in Japan, has become an indispensable travel system for the Japanese society. The person who contributed most to the development of MARS was Dr. Mamoru Hosaka. Using a Bendix G15 computer, he developed MARS-1 and put it into service with the Japanese National Railways. For his work Dr. Hosaka received the IEEE 2006 Computer Pioneer Award. It is generally recognized that the Train Seat Reservation System MARS greatly contributed to the convenience of travel planning and saved time of millions of travelers and manual labor to JNR industry.  +
March 22, 1977, Kenichi Iga of Tokyo Institute of Technology perceived a surface emitting laser whose light output comes vertically from the wafer surface, contrary to the conventional edge-emitting laser. The target of research motivation was the realization of current injection semiconductor laser that satisfies (i)monolithic fabrication, (ii)stable single frequency oscillation, and (iii)continuous-frequency tuning. The device was later named vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). Iga and his group clearly showed the feasibility of VCSELs by proving a laser oscillation with this new structure in 1979. Iga and his group’s innovative and persistent research have brought significant progress for VCSEL performance and productivity. Among excellent performance that they realized included very low threshold and driving currents, circular light beams, and so on. Along with the development the three problems that Iga pointed as the motivation was clarified; monolithic fabrication, stable single frequency oscillation, and continuous-frequency tuning. From device fabrication view point, the array formation allows us to check the chip characteristic in a wafer scale, not in a separated chip scale. With devoting research, Kenichi tried to make VCSELs popular by having lectures frequently in world-wide. These efforts contributed to expand VCSEL applications from communications to consumer electronics. VCSEL has grown to be a key component for supporting and further developing the information society of the 21st century. From the original invention to the technology development for higher performance and commercialization of VCSEL s, Iga’s contribution is quite significant and difficult to be replaced. (249words)  +
One hundred years ago the holy grail of radio was long distance voice broadcasting -- a principal one being Trans-Atlantic. The early voice communication successes were more accidental happenstance by amateurs. Then, under the leadership of the Radio Corporation of America led by David Sarnoff and Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company in the UK a well planned, system engineered attempt succeeded on March 14, 1925. A regularly scheduled BBC broadcast from London was broadcast live in New York and Washington to local listeners by NBC stations WJZ and WRC. This fulfilled a vision of Sarnoff and A. N. Goldsmith, RCA's Chief Broadcast Engineer as well as the BBC and Marconi. It was a game changer, the forerunner of today's routine live global broadcast news reporting and programming.  +
TRON Intelligent House was built in Tokyo in 1989. It had about 1,000 computers, and many sensors and actuators in a 333 square meter space. It was built by a group called TRON Intelligent House Study Group, consisting of 18 member companies, which understood the concept of Highly Functionally Distributed System (HFDS), essentially today's IoT. HFDS proposed in the 1980s by Ken Sakamura, the leader of TRON Project, was the true pioneer of today's IoT vision. Computers were hidden as much as possible to create a people-friendly atmosphere. People lived in the house so that we could obtain valuable feedback about the computer-controlled living environment. There have been many off-the-shelf housing components developed later from the prototype created for the TRON Intelligent House. The TRON Intelligent House had an impact on smart house research and development in Japan and elsewhere. In its wake, newer TRON Intelligent House projects (v2 in Japan in 2004, v3 in Taipei in 2009) followed and so-called IoT campus building in Japan was built in 2017, and the latest smart house research goes on which inherits the knowledge of the first TRON Intelligent House and the later projects.  +
The Colossus code breaking machines were developed to attack the World War 2 German Tunny cipher used to encrypt radio traffic between Berlin and the major German Army Commands across occupied Europe. Breaking the Tunny cipher was beyond what could be achieved by manual techniques or by electromechanical machines. Deciphering messages using Colossus made one of the most significant contributions to victory in Europe, due to the strategic nature of the intelligence gained. Colossus was developed by a team led by Tommy Flowers from the British Post Office research laboratory at Dollis Hill in London. The first Colossus was delivered to Block H at Bletchley Park in January 1944, rapidly followed by a further nine machines. For its time, Colossus was an electronic tour-de-force. It used circuits for counting and Boolean algebra functions to perform statistical calculations on encrypted messages. Input was via a 5,000 character per second photoelectric paper tape reader and output to an online teleprinter. Containing over 1,500 thermionic valves (vacuum tubes), Colossus was significantly larger than any other contemporary electronic device and ran continuously 24 hours a day, seven days a week. It was programmed using switch panels and jack leads to set up the desired computations. In many respects Colossus anticipated the modern electronic digital computer. There is controversy around “the first computer”. We are seeking recognition of Colossus as the first use of large-scale digital electronics to perform calculations and for its contribution to the Allied victory in 1945.  +
The PageRank algorithm greatly improved the state of the art in the ranking of web research results. Prior to PageRank, the main signal used for web search ranking was the lexical similarity between the words contained in a query and the words contained in a web page. Using lexical similarity as the only ranking signal is appropriate for traditional textual documents (e.g. books), but hypertext documents such as web pages also contain hyperlinks connecting these documents. By linking to another web page, the author of the web page containing the hyperlink implicitly signals that the linked web page is notable. PageRank interprets hyperlinks from one web page to another as a positive signal, and assigns higher scores to pages that are referred (linked to) by many other pages, giving higher weight to highly-scored referrers. PageRank can be viewed as a query-independent measure of web page quality. Combining query-independent PageRank scores with lexical similarity scores between queries and web pages results in a ranking score that is superior to purely lexical scores. PageRank is widely credited as the feature that differentiated Google from pre-existing search engines. Today, PageRank is used in a host of applications, ranging from search engines to social networks to peer-to-peer systems.  +
The first network for Japanese Community. This network distributes information of Japan to the world. JUNET provides Hierarchical Domain Name Style E-Mail distribution mechanism on an intermittent link network. JUNET also provides Japanese Language Environment for E-mail and NetNews users. JUNET is established in Oct. 1984. JUNET connects many organization in Japan. Services in JUNET are E-mail and NetNews. NetNews Groups fj (from Japan) distribute information of Japan to the world in English and Japanese. JUNET contributes the following two issues. 1. Hierarchical Domain Name Style E-Mail distribution mechanism on an intermittent link network. JUNET E-Mail Service uses Hierarchical Domain Name Style like ARPANET. However, JUNET organizations are connected by batch network mechanism. In same years, USENET E-mail uses source routing style address (bang notation) like host a!hostb!username. Bang Notation is very difficult to use, since user should know complete route to distribution. JUNET provide special name resolution mechanism. This is first challenge in the world. 2. JUNET is provide Japanese Language Environment (i.e. character code discussion, kanji/kana font for display, input method as kana/kanji conversion mechanism) E-Mail and NetNews on JUNET can use Japanese Language. To use Japanese Language, we discussed Character code for Japanese Language as RFC1468. We also modify several tools include OS, editor and applications on UNIX operating system. To display Japanese Language, community is also developed Kanji/Kana fonts for X Window System. Developed fonts are included distribution of X Window System. To input Japanese Language, Kana-Kanji conversion input systems are developed (ex. Wnn, Canna, …). To utilize those input system, we developed input method standard for X Window System. As result, all of people in the world can use Japanese Language for them. These discussions led to the later multilingualization of the network.  +
The fish finder is a device that transmits ultrasonic waves into the water and receives the reflected waves to visualize and detect fish schools. The Japanese brothers Kiyotaka and Kiyokata Furuno commercialize the fish finder that can reliably detect fish schools. They improve the reception amplifier of the acoustic sounder that was used for surveying sea depth to detect the weak reception signal reflected by fish school, and they devised equipment methods such as drilling holes in the bottom of a wooden ship for installing an ultrasound transducer to avoid noise caused by bubbles around the ship. The developed fish finder succeeded in accurately detecting sardine fish school in 1948, dramatically improving the catch and rapidly spreading as an indispensable equipment for fishing. The improved catch helped to secure Japan's protein resources, which had been in short supply after World War II, and contributed to the stability of Japanese life. Today, fish finders are equipped on almost every fishing boat in the world. The invention of the fish finder has an extremely important historical value in that it has brought about a revolutionary change in fisheries by giving a "scientific eye" to fisheries that had previously relied solely on the intuition and experience of fishermen, and electrical technology has brought about the modernization of the fisheries industry.  +