Difference between revisions of "Milestone-Proposal:The Grace M. Hopper Milestone"

From IEEE Milestones Wiki
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|section is taking responsibility for plaque=Yes
 
|section is taking responsibility for plaque=Yes
 
|a11=Yes
 
|a11=Yes
|a3=1946 through 1957
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|a3=1952 -1959
|a1=The Compiler 1952
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|a1=The Compiler, 1952
|plaque citation=The first Compiler was invented in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, in 1952. The compiler translated human-readable English keywords or commands into machine-readable instructions or binary code thus creating well-defined communication between human programmers and computers. The compiler “Flow-Matic Programming system” for UNIVAC shaped the creation of COBOL, a major programming language, which formed the basis for the commercial multi-billion-dollar IT infrastructure and industry.
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|plaque citation=The compiler translated human-readable English keywords or commands into machine-readable instructions or code, thus creating well-defined communication between human programmers and computers. It made possible programs written for different computers rather than a single machine. Based on the compiler, the Flow-Matic was first used in the UNIVAC. This shaped the creation of COBOL, a programming language that facilitated the information highway and the beginning of the IT industry.
 
|a2b=IEEE Philadelphia Section
 
|a2b=IEEE Philadelphia Section
 
|IEEE units paying={{IEEE Organizational Unit Paying
 
|IEEE units paying={{IEEE Organizational Unit Paying
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|a2a=200 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104,  GPS Latitude: 39.95239 - Longitude: -75.190489
 
|a2a=200 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104,  GPS Latitude: 39.95239 - Longitude: -75.190489
|a7=1740 is the founding date of the University of Pennsylvania where the compiler Milestone will be placed. When the compiler was being invented, the University’s Moore Engineering School admitted women into all engineering programs in 1954.[1]  The Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) was the first Computer invented at Penn. Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation (EMCC) was formed at Broad and Spring Garden Streets. A core group of programmers were hired from the Moore School including Grace Hopper.[2] The location was within two miles of Penn, where the compiler was invented in 1952. Remington Rand bought the company and EMCC became a subsidiary of Remington Rand at the same location. It later moved to 3747 Ridge Avenue in Philadelphia. The compiler was used in UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) which started the information age in 1957. Grace Hopper lectured at Penn for twelve years about the invention of the compiler and its importance. Remington Rand became Sperry Rand and today is Unisys. Pennsylvania History Marker for the ENIAC is located on the street outside the building[1] https://www.ese.upenn/history    [2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eckert%E2%80%93Mauchly_Computer_Corporation
+
|a7=This is an appeal to the rules of locating a milestone. Philadelphia is an older city and so locations where an invention was made become unavailable, but an alternate location is open for placement. We have this situation with the Compiler Milestone. There is a precedent involving the Ben Franklin Milestone where precise location was difficult.  The building at 3747 Ridge Avenue where the compiler was invented has a cyclone fence around it and is unavailable to the public today. Current use is an interior decorating company. I personally spoke with the owners, and they do not want the milestone on their property. The city has a plaque on a pole outside this building as the place that invented the computer. Two poles would be clutter.  The former Sperry Rand building at 1900 Alleghany Avenue has been replaced by a drug rehab medical center with an apartment complex to house the clients. It would be extremely difficult to get permission to locate a milestone here. Visitors would be highly disturbing to the residents. Information about this building came from Marvin Weinstein, who was once Chair of the Philadelphia section. He worked for Sperry Rand when Grace was Director of Programing in the sixties at this address  A building that fits all the requirements exists at University of Pennsylvania, Moore Engineering school. It is located at 200 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, GPS Latitude: 39.95239 - Longitude: -75.190489. It is in a very busy area with much-walking traffic.  It is safe, with visibility, and secure. UNISYS is the caretaker for this history of early computing at this University’s Moore Engineering School. The Milestone for the invention of the computer is already there. This would be a companion.    Here is a condensed history. After the invention of the ENIAC at the University of Pennsylvania, Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation (EMCC) was formed in 1946. By 1949, EMCC was brought out by Remington Rand and John Mauchly hired Grace M. Hopper. The compiler was invented in 1952 at 3747 Ridge Avenue, East Falls, Philadelphia, PA. Shortly afterward, the company moved to 1900 Allegany Avenue. In 1955, Remington Rand merged with Sperry Rand. In 1957, The Sperry Rand Company used the Compiler (The Flow-Matic) in UNIVAC, the first open market computer. Eventually, Sperry Rand merged with the business machine company, Burroughs. Today the company is UNISYS.  Many of the same people who worked on the ENIAC were hired from the Moore Engineering School of the University of Pennsylvania. They worked on the UNIVAC using the compiler, invented by Grace M. Hopper. It is important to note that COBOL, the later result of the compiler, became a standard computer language in 1960 and is used to this day. It was promoted by many lecturers at the University of Pennsylvania, many universities across the country, and internationally by Grace M. Hopper.  She educated her pupils on the early history of computers, the compiler, COBOL, and their importance to society. The Milestone for the invention of the computer, the Eniac is already there. This would be a companion.
|a8=yes
+
|a8=1 extant and 1 extinct - History of the buildings: The building at 3747 Ridge Avenue where the compiler was invented has a cyclone fence around it and is unavailable to the public today. I personally spoke with the owners, and they do not want the milestone on their propertyThe second building at 1900 Alleghany Avenue does not exist today. The reason why I now about this building is one of our IEEE Board members, Marvin Weinstein, worked for Sperry Rand when Grace was Director of Programing in the sixties. He provided me with the address. The location is now a drug rehab medical center with an apartment complex to house the clients.
|mounting details=The Compiler Milestone will be on a wall in the lobby of the University of Pennsylvania, the Moore  School
+
|mounting details=The Compiler Milestone will be on a wall in the lobby of the University of Pennsylvania the Moore Engineering School. The milestone plaques come with four mounting holes in the back. There are four at the corners: 2.75 inches/6.5 cm in from the corners (as measured on the diagonal) or 1.95 inches/4.596cm in from the edges.  The holes are threaded to take the studs.  Please see https://ieeemilestones.ethw.org/Plaque_mounting_details
 
|a9=It is a secure location by security cameras and campus security guards.  It is open seven days a week.
 
|a9=It is a secure location by security cameras and campus security guards.  It is open seven days a week.
 
|a10=University of Pennsylvania
 
|a10=University of Pennsylvania
|a4=The historical significance of the Compiler is the importance of how it affected the modern computer: A compiler is a computer program that translates computer code written in one programming language into another computer language.  The compiler is primarily used for programs that translate source code from a high-level programming language to a lower-level language to create an executable program.[3] The invention of the compiler led to the Information Age and the beginning of the IT industry.  
+
|a4=The historical significance of the compiler is the importance of how it affected the modern computer: A compiler is a computer program that translates computer code written in mathematic programming into a computer language such as English.  The compiler is primarily used for programs that translate source code from a high-level programming language to a lower-level language to create an executable program.[3] The invention of the compiler led to the Information Age and the beginning of the IT industry.  
  
 
[3] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_compiler_construction
 
[3] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_compiler_construction
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[4] https://flatironschool.com/blog/code-history-lesson-grace-hopper
 
[4] https://flatironschool.com/blog/code-history-lesson-grace-hopper
|a5=The feature that set the Compiler apart from similar achievements is it was the missing link in computer programming. The compiler was an executable program that translated source code into a binary form known as object code or machine code for the first time.   
+
|a5=The feature that set the compiler apart from similar achievements is it was the missing link in computer programming. The compiler was an executable program that translated source code into a binary form known as object code or machine code for the first time.   
  
[5]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_compiler_construction
+
[5] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_compiler_construction
|references=1740 is the founding date of the University of Pennsylvania where the compiler Milestone will be placed. When the compiler was being invented, the University’s Moore Engineering School admitted women into all engineering programs in 1954.[1] 
+
|references=https://news.yale.edu/2017/02/10/grace-murray-hopper-1906-1992-legacy-innovation-and-service
[1] https://www.ese.upenn.edu/history
 
 
 
The Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) was the first Computer invented at Penn. Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation (EMCC) was formed at Broad and Spring Garden Streets. A core group of programmers were hired from the Moore School including Grace Hopper.[2]
 
[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eckert%E2%80%93Mauchly_Computer_Corporation
 
 
 
The historical significance of the Compiler is the importance of how it affected the modern computer: A compiler is a computer program that translates computer code written in one programming language into another computer language.  The compiler is primarily used for programs that translate source code from a high-level programming language to a lower-level language to create an executable program.[3]
 
[3] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_compiler_construction
 
 
 
  “I had a running compiler, and nobody would touch it… they carefully told me computers could only do arithmetic. They could not do programs” said Grace Hopper.[4]
 
[4] https://flatironschool.com/blog/code-history-lesson-grace-hopper
 
 
 
The feature that set the Compiler apart from similar achievements is it was the missing link in computer programming. The compiler was an executable program that translated source code into a binary form known as object code or machine code for the first time.[5] 
 
[5]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_compiler_construction
 
 
 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_compiler_construction
 
https://news.yale.edu/2017/02/10/grace-murray-hopper-1906-1992-legacy-innovation-and-service
 
 
https://www.computer.org/profiles/grace-hopper
 
https://www.computer.org/profiles/grace-hopper
 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grace_Hopper
 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grace_Hopper
 
https://www.britannica.com/biography/Grace-Hopper
 
https://www.britannica.com/biography/Grace-Hopper
https://www.computer.org/csdl/magazine/it/2015/01/mit2015010062/13rRUxCitFF
+
https://www.computer.org/csdl/magazine/it/2015/01/mit2015010062/13rRUxCitFF     (IEEE)
http://hdl.library.upenn.edu/1017/d/pacscl/UPENN_RBML_PUSpMsColl925
+
|supporting materials=Images of Dr. Grace M. Hopper can be found at https://www.hagley.org/research/news/hagley-vault/we-re-posting-ca-1967-photograph-today-recognition-115th-anniversary, https://www.hagley.org/research/news/hagley-vault/were-posting-photograph-june-1957-today
 +
The two letters that are required were forwarded to Robert Colburn, Research Coordinator
 
|submitted=Yes
 
|submitted=Yes
 
}}
 
}}

Latest revision as of 02:11, 22 April 2022


To see comments, or add a comment to this discussion, click here.

Docket #:2020-03

This proposal has been submitted for review.


To the proposer’s knowledge, is this achievement subject to litigation? No

Is the achievement you are proposing more than 25 years old? Yes

Is the achievement you are proposing within IEEE’s designated fields as defined by IEEE Bylaw I-104.11, namely: Engineering, Computer Sciences and Information Technology, Physical Sciences, Biological and Medical Sciences, Mathematics, Technical Communications, Education, Management, and Law and Policy. Yes

Did the achievement provide a meaningful benefit for humanity? Yes

Was it of at least regional importance? Yes

Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to pay for the milestone plaque(s)? Yes

Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to arrange the dedication ceremony? Yes

Has the IEEE Section in which the milestone is located agreed to take responsibility for the plaque after it is dedicated? Yes

Has the owner of the site agreed to have it designated as an IEEE Milestone? Yes


Year or range of years in which the achievement occurred:

1952 -1959

Title of the proposed milestone:

The Compiler, 1952

Plaque citation summarizing the achievement and its significance:

The compiler translated human-readable English keywords or commands into machine-readable instructions or code, thus creating well-defined communication between human programmers and computers. It made possible programs written for different computers rather than a single machine. Based on the compiler, the Flow-Matic was first used in the UNIVAC. This shaped the creation of COBOL, a programming language that facilitated the information highway and the beginning of the IT industry.

In what IEEE section(s) does it reside?

IEEE Philadelphia Section

IEEE Organizational Unit(s) which have agreed to sponsor the Milestone:

IEEE Organizational Unit(s) paying for milestone plaque(s):

Unit: IEEE Philadelphia Section, IEEE Women in Engineering Committee, IEEE WIE Region 2, and IEEE WIE Affinity Groups of Philadelphia and South New Jersey
Senior Officer Name: Emilio M. Salgueiro, Chair

Unit: IEEE Membership Committee
Senior Officer Name: Kathleen M. McDevitt, Chair

IEEE Organizational Unit(s) arranging the dedication ceremony:

Unit: IEEE Philadelphia Milestone committee
Senior Officer Name: Kathleen M. McDevitt, Chair

Unit: IEEE Membership Committee
Senior Officer Name: Kathleen M. McDevitt, Chair

Unit: IEEE Women In Engineering Affinity Group, Philadelphia
Senior Officer Name: Nannette D'Imperio

Unit: IEEE Philadelphia Section
Senior Officer Name: Emilio M. Salgueiro, Chair

IEEE section(s) monitoring the plaque(s):

IEEE Section: IEEE Philadelphia Section
IEEE Section Chair name: Emilio M. Salgueiro, Chair

Milestone proposer(s):

Proposer name: Kathleen M McDevitt (Kate)
Proposer email: Proposer's email masked to public

Please note: your email address and contact information will be masked on the website for privacy reasons. Only IEEE History Center Staff will be able to view the email address.

Street address(es) and GPS coordinates of the intended milestone plaque site(s):

200 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, GPS Latitude: 39.95239 - Longitude: -75.190489

Describe briefly the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s). The intended site(s) must have a direct connection with the achievement (e.g. where developed, invented, tested, demonstrated, installed, or operated, etc.). A museum where a device or example of the technology is displayed, or the university where the inventor studied, are not, in themselves, sufficient connection for a milestone plaque.

Please give the address(es) of the plaque site(s) (GPS coordinates if you have them). Also please give the details of the mounting, i.e. on the outside of the building, in the ground floor entrance hall, on a plinth on the grounds, etc. If visitors to the plaque site will need to go through security, or make an appointment, please give the contact information visitors will need. This is an appeal to the rules of locating a milestone. Philadelphia is an older city and so locations where an invention was made become unavailable, but an alternate location is open for placement. We have this situation with the Compiler Milestone. There is a precedent involving the Ben Franklin Milestone where precise location was difficult. The building at 3747 Ridge Avenue where the compiler was invented has a cyclone fence around it and is unavailable to the public today. Current use is an interior decorating company. I personally spoke with the owners, and they do not want the milestone on their property. The city has a plaque on a pole outside this building as the place that invented the computer. Two poles would be clutter. The former Sperry Rand building at 1900 Alleghany Avenue has been replaced by a drug rehab medical center with an apartment complex to house the clients. It would be extremely difficult to get permission to locate a milestone here. Visitors would be highly disturbing to the residents. Information about this building came from Marvin Weinstein, who was once Chair of the Philadelphia section. He worked for Sperry Rand when Grace was Director of Programing in the sixties at this address A building that fits all the requirements exists at University of Pennsylvania, Moore Engineering school. It is located at 200 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, GPS Latitude: 39.95239 - Longitude: -75.190489. It is in a very busy area with much-walking traffic. It is safe, with visibility, and secure. UNISYS is the caretaker for this history of early computing at this University’s Moore Engineering School. The Milestone for the invention of the computer is already there. This would be a companion. Here is a condensed history. After the invention of the ENIAC at the University of Pennsylvania, Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation (EMCC) was formed in 1946. By 1949, EMCC was brought out by Remington Rand and John Mauchly hired Grace M. Hopper. The compiler was invented in 1952 at 3747 Ridge Avenue, East Falls, Philadelphia, PA. Shortly afterward, the company moved to 1900 Allegany Avenue. In 1955, Remington Rand merged with Sperry Rand. In 1957, The Sperry Rand Company used the Compiler (The Flow-Matic) in UNIVAC, the first open market computer. Eventually, Sperry Rand merged with the business machine company, Burroughs. Today the company is UNISYS. Many of the same people who worked on the ENIAC were hired from the Moore Engineering School of the University of Pennsylvania. They worked on the UNIVAC using the compiler, invented by Grace M. Hopper. It is important to note that COBOL, the later result of the compiler, became a standard computer language in 1960 and is used to this day. It was promoted by many lecturers at the University of Pennsylvania, many universities across the country, and internationally by Grace M. Hopper. She educated her pupils on the early history of computers, the compiler, COBOL, and their importance to society. The Milestone for the invention of the computer, the Eniac is already there. This would be a companion.

Are the original buildings extant?

1 extant and 1 extinct - History of the buildings: The building at 3747 Ridge Avenue where the compiler was invented has a cyclone fence around it and is unavailable to the public today. I personally spoke with the owners, and they do not want the milestone on their property. The second building at 1900 Alleghany Avenue does not exist today. The reason why I now about this building is one of our IEEE Board members, Marvin Weinstein, worked for Sperry Rand when Grace was Director of Programing in the sixties. He provided me with the address. The location is now a drug rehab medical center with an apartment complex to house the clients.

Details of the plaque mounting:

The Compiler Milestone will be on a wall in the lobby of the University of Pennsylvania the Moore Engineering School. The milestone plaques come with four mounting holes in the back. There are four at the corners: 2.75 inches/6.5 cm in from the corners (as measured on the diagonal) or 1.95 inches/4.596cm in from the edges. The holes are threaded to take the studs. Please see https://ieeemilestones.ethw.org/Plaque_mounting_details

How is the site protected/secured, and in what ways is it accessible to the public?

It is a secure location by security cameras and campus security guards. It is open seven days a week.

Who is the present owner of the site(s)?

University of Pennsylvania

What is the historical significance of the work (its technological, scientific, or social importance)?

The historical significance of the compiler is the importance of how it affected the modern computer: A compiler is a computer program that translates computer code written in mathematic programming into a computer language such as English. The compiler is primarily used for programs that translate source code from a high-level programming language to a lower-level language to create an executable program.[3] The invention of the compiler led to the Information Age and the beginning of the IT industry.

[3] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_compiler_construction

What obstacles (technical, political, geographic) needed to be overcome?

The biggest obstacle that needed to be overcome was convincing the management and the computer department that the Compiler would work technically. The politics and challenges of convincing an all-male audience took two years for acceptance. “I had a running compiler, and nobody would touch it… they carefully told me computers could only do arithmetic. They could not do programs” said Grace Hopper.[4]

[4] https://flatironschool.com/blog/code-history-lesson-grace-hopper

What features set this work apart from similar achievements?

The feature that set the compiler apart from similar achievements is it was the missing link in computer programming. The compiler was an executable program that translated source code into a binary form known as object code or machine code for the first time.

[5] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_compiler_construction

Supporting texts and citations to establish the dates, location, and importance of the achievement: Minimum of five (5), but as many as needed to support the milestone, such as patents, contemporary newspaper articles, journal articles, or chapters in scholarly books. 'Scholarly' is defined as peer-reviewed, with references, and published. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. At least one of the references must be from a scholarly book or journal article. All supporting materials must be in English, or accompanied by an English translation.

https://news.yale.edu/2017/02/10/grace-murray-hopper-1906-1992-legacy-innovation-and-service https://www.computer.org/profiles/grace-hopper https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grace_Hopper https://www.britannica.com/biography/Grace-Hopper https://www.computer.org/csdl/magazine/it/2015/01/mit2015010062/13rRUxCitFF (IEEE)

Supporting materials (supported formats: GIF, JPEG, PNG, PDF, DOC): All supporting materials must be in English, or if not in English, accompanied by an English translation. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. For documents that are copyright-encumbered, or which you do not have rights to post, email the documents themselves to ieee-history@ieee.org. Please see the Milestone Program Guidelines for more information.

Images of Dr. Grace M. Hopper can be found at https://www.hagley.org/research/news/hagley-vault/we-re-posting-ca-1967-photograph-today-recognition-115th-anniversary, https://www.hagley.org/research/news/hagley-vault/were-posting-photograph-june-1957-today The two letters that are required were forwarded to Robert Colburn, Research Coordinator

Please email a jpeg or PDF a letter in English, or with English translation, from the site owner(s) giving permission to place IEEE milestone plaque on the property, and a letter (or forwarded email) from the appropriate Section Chair supporting the Milestone application to ieee-history@ieee.org with the subject line "Attention: Milestone Administrator." Note that there are multiple texts of the letter depending on whether an IEEE organizational unit other than the section will be paying for the plaque(s).