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Expert Review #2 for 2022-10 by Prof Russel D Dupuis -- Gilcooke (talk) 21:02, 14 February 2023 (UTC)

Professor Russell D. Dupuis, Ph.D. Cell Phone: 404.543.0643 e-mail: February 4, 2023

Subject: Request for Expert Review of IEEE Milestones Proposal for the Injection Laser Diode

Dear Dr. Cooke, Thank you for the opportunity to comment on this important milestone proposal. I strongly support this proposal and the recognition of this important body of work. My specific comments are below.

1. Accuracy of Plaque Citation I agree with the proposers wording of the Plaque Citation.

2. Substance and Accuracy of Evidence Presented I agree with the proposers about the technical and commercial importance of these events and also with the he technical description of the events and the discussion clearly support the Citation.

3. Discussion of Importance of Milestone Event Since the announcement of the invention of the solid-state ruby laser (the first LASER) in the August 6, 1960 issue of the journal Nature by Theodore Maiman at Hughes Research Labs, Malibu CA, which emitted visible coherent light in the red, it was obvious that lasing could be realized in the visible, and probably, also in the near-infrared spectrum. The realization of the visible ruby laser operation was a dramatic shift in frequency from the long-wavelength mm-wave microwaves emitted by the ammonia MASER (microwave amplification by the stimulated emission of radiation) which had been invented in 1955 and operated at 23,870 mega- cycles/s. Since the first LASER (light amplification by the stimulated emission of radiation)—a solid-state device based upon discrete-energy-state Cr-ion impurity transitions—was demonstrated in 1960, some researchers who were exploring semiconductor p-n junction diodes had wondered if a semiconductor had the necessary qualities to support stimulated emission and laser operation. Some were convinced that such a device could not be made since the physics was so different from the ruby laser. However, others believed that such a possibility might indeed exist. However, no one had any solid idea about how to take the ideas about the operation of a laser using the “discrete electronic quantum states” of isolated Cr ions in ruby and apply this to the very different electronic band structure of a semiconductor. The pioneering work by the MIT Lincoln Laboratory group led by Dr. Robert Rediker, on GaAs diffused p-n junction infrared LEDs, was a catalyst for the increased efforts to make a semiconductor laser from July 1962. The MIT-LL group announced on July 9, 1962 at the IEEE Device Research Conference in New Hampshire that their GaAs p-n junctions had an almost 100% internal quantum efficiency of the spontaneous emission.[1] Many attendees of this conference, including Robert Hall from GE Schenectady, Nick Holonyak, Jr. from GE Syracuse, and Marshall Nathan from IBM Research Labs in Yorktown Heights NY as well as others, were excited by these results and the implication that a semiconductor laser could be created using such an efficient light

source. The MIT-LL work set off a rush and many labs to exploit this compound semiconductor materials system. The demonstration of the first GaAs diffused p-n injection laser diode by Robert Hall, et al. at the GE Corporate Research Center in Schenectady, (now Niskayuna) NY on September 16, 1962 [2,3] and the first demonstration of an alloy visible p-n injection laser diode by Nick Holonyak, Jr., et al., a few weeks later on October 6, 1962 that Holonyak had developed at the GE Research Laboratory in Syracuse NY (but actually demonstrated using Hall’s facilities at the GE Corporate Research Center) make this an important site for IEEE Historical Site Recognition.[4,5] Furthermore, the pioneering work by the MIT Lincoln Laboratory group and their subsequent independent demonstration of a p-n junction laser diode was an important confirmation of Hall, et al.’s work at GE, the results of which had just been published.[6,7] Additionally, the IBM Research Labs group, led by Marshall Nathan, at about this same time also published a paper on stimulated emission in GaAs p-n junctions.[8]

4. Summary and Impact of the Work

These four independent seminal demonstrations of the operation of a compound semiconductor injection laser diode set the stage for the future work that has created an extensive multi-billion USD market and expanded greatly the applications for coherent light sources across the near-UV, visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared spectral regions. The development of the semiconductor diode laser has created products that greatly improve the welfare, life, safety, and health of many people on earth and will have an expanding role in the improvement of the human condition in the future. I give my strongest support to the recognition of these important events by the establishment of the IEEE Historical Site Plaques at the designated locations.

Professor Emeritus Russell D. Dupuis Georgia Institute Technology

References 1 R. J. Keyes and T. M. Quist, “Recombination radiation emitted by gallium arsenide diodes,” presented at the IEEE Solid-State Device Research, Conf., Durham, NH, Jul. 1962. 2 R. N. Hall, G. E. Fenner, J. D. Kingsley, T. J. Soltys, and R. O. Carlson, “Coherent light mission from GaAs junctions,” Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 9, No. 9, pp. 366–368, Nov. 1, 1962, Received on September 24, 1962. 3 R. N. Hall, “Injection lasers,” IEEE Trans. Elect. Dev., vol. ED-23, no.7, Jul. 1976 4 N. Holonyak, Jr. and S. F. Bevacqua, “Coherent (visible) light emission from Ga(AsP) junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 82–83, Dec. 1, 1962, Received on October 17, 1962. 5 N. Holonyak, Jr., “The semiconductor laser: A thirty-five-year perspective,” Proc. IEEE, Vol. 85, No. 11, pp. 1678– 1693, Nov. 1997. 6 T. M Quist, R. H. Rediker, R. J. Keyes, W. E. Krag, B. Lax, A. L. McWhorter, and H. J. Zeigler, “Semiconductor maser of GaAs”, Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 91-92, Dec. 1, 1962. Received on Nov. 5, 1962. 7 R. H. Rediker, “Semiconductor diode luminescence and lasers—A perspective,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., Vol. 6, No. 6, pp. 1355–1362, Nov./Dec. 2000 8 M. I. Nathan, W. P. Dumke, G. Burns, F. H. Dill, and G. Lasher, “Stimulated emission of radiation from GaAs p-n junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 62-64, Nov

Test a -- Gilcooke (talk) 17:28, 15 February 2023 (UTC)