Milestone-Proposal:Budapest Metroline No.1.
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This Proposal has been approved, and is now a Milestone
To the proposer’s knowledge, is this achievement subject to litigation? No
Is the achievement you are proposing more than 25 years old? Yes
Is the achievement you are proposing within IEEE’s designated fields as defined by IEEE Bylaw I-104.11, namely: Engineering, Computer Sciences and Information Technology, Physical Sciences, Biological and Medical Sciences, Mathematics, Technical Communications, Education, Management, and Law and Policy. Yes
Did the achievement provide a meaningful benefit for humanity? Yes
Was it of at least regional importance? Yes
Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to pay for the milestone plaque(s)? Yes
Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to arrange the dedication ceremony? Yes
Has the IEEE Section in which the milestone is located agreed to take responsibility for the plaque after it is dedicated? Yes
Has the owner of the site agreed to have it designated as an IEEE Milestone? Yes
Year or range of years in which the achievement occurred:
Title of the proposed milestone:
Budapest Metroline No.1., 1896
Plaque citation summarizing the achievement and its significance:
In 1896, Budapest Metro Line No. 1 was inaugurated, the first underground railway designed specifically to use electric power, rather than adapted from steam-powered systems. It offered several innovative elements, including bidirectional motor carriages, the “goose neck chassis,” and electric lighting in the stations and carriages. This line's design influenced later subway construction in Boston, Paris, Berlin, and other metropolitan areas worldwide.
200-250 word abstract describing the significance of the technical achievement being proposed, the person(s) involved, historical context, humanitarian and social impact, as well as any possible controversies the advocate might need to review.
IEEE technical societies and technical councils within whose fields of interest the Milestone proposal resides.
In what IEEE section(s) does it reside?
IEEE Hungary Section
IEEE Organizational Unit(s) which have agreed to sponsor the Milestone:
IEEE Organizational Unit(s) paying for milestone plaque(s):
Unit: IEEE Hungary Section
Senior Officer Name: Levente Kovács
Unit: IEEE Hungary Section
Senior Officer Name: Peter Kadar
IEEE Organizational Unit(s) arranging the dedication ceremony:
Unit: IEEE Hungary Section
Senior Officer Name: Levente Kovács
Unit: IEEE Hungary Section
Senior Officer Name: Peter Kadar
IEEE section(s) monitoring the plaque(s):
IEEE Section: IEEE Hungary Section
IEEE Section Chair name: Levente Kovács
Proposer name: Peter Kadar
Proposer email: Proposer's email masked to public
Please note: your email address and contact information will be masked on the website for privacy reasons. Only IEEE History Center Staff will be able to view the email address.
Street address(es) and GPS coordinates in decimal form of the intended milestone plaque site(s):
47 29'52.52" N 19 03'17.70" E Deák Ferenc square, Underground Railway Museum, Budapest,1052 HUNGARY
Describe briefly the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s). The intended site(s) must have a direct connection with the achievement (e.g. where developed, invented, tested, demonstrated, installed, or operated, etc.). A museum where a device or example of the technology is displayed, or the university where the inventor studied, are not, in themselves, sufficient connection for a milestone plaque.
Please give the address(es) of the plaque site(s) (GPS coordinates if you have them). Also please give the details of the mounting, i.e. on the outside of the building, in the ground floor entrance hall, on a plinth on the grounds, etc. If visitors to the plaque site will need to go through security, or make an appointment, please give the contact information visitors will need. In the center of Budapest in a part of the original tunnel/station the Budapest Underground Railway Museum is shaped 40 years ago. Here are exhibited two original carriages (120 years old) and other relicts about the Budapest Metro No.1.
Are the original buildings extant?
Yes, this is the original tunnel/station.
Details of the plaque mounting:
In the center of Budapest a busy underpass makes possible to (1) cross the street (2) to reach stations of metro No.1. and No.2. and (3) to enter to the Budapest Underground Museum.Thera are many stairsways from different directions to reach this level.The Museum has an entrance Hall (cca. 100 sqm) with guard and continuous surveillance. The Museum space is a 60 m long and 6 m wide underground station with illumination, with carriages, with relicts.
How is the site protected/secured, and in what ways is it accessible to the public?
The plaque will be mounted close to the oringinal plaque about the inauguration of the Metro in 1896.This site is double guarded, at the entrance of the museum. The museum visitors can see it.
Who is the present owner of the site(s)?
The Hungarian Museum of Science, Technology and Transport
What is the historical significance of the work (its technological, scientific, or social importance)? If personal names are included in citation, include justification here. (see section 6 of Milestone Guidelines)
I. Summary The Budapest Metro Line No.1, the first continental underground electric tramline, was constructed for the celebrations of the thousand year anniversary of the Hungarian statehood and Millennia World Fair in 1896. The cut-and-cover tunnel method was used with a flat roof with steel beacons support, instead of a brick arch resulting in a low tunnel height. The carriages were characterized by low floor height do to the “goose neck” chassis. The technics served as a reference, muster and standard during the construction of Boston, Paris and Berlin metro. The project included several innovations of electrical engineering, partly pioneered by Siemens like the traction system. Novelties were the bidirectional motor carriage with two driver’s cabins, where the boogie included the motor and the overlapping rail jointing for smooth gliding. It was the first application of underground trolley system. The Budapest Metro line No. 1 has been in operation since its inauguration, for more than 120 years. The Underground Railway Museum (URM) with three original wagons has been open to the public in a non-used tunnel part since 1975. The Budapest metro line No.1. became part of the World heritage in 2002, together with the avenue above it called “Andrássy street”.
II. The contribution of the Budapest metro to technological innovation
The first Budapest underground line combined the previous worldwide good practices, as electric traction motors, electric railway security signalization, electric lighting in the stations and the carriages. At the same time it abandoned the clutch-and-cable system, the gas fired lightings. Several new ideas were put into practice, such as the trolley current collector instead of the third rail system, the cut-and-cover construction instead of deep-level tunnel drilling and instead of independent locomotives the electric traction motors are built in the carriage’s bogies. The construction became a muster for the New York, Boston, Paris, Berlin and Buenos Aires metros.
III. Historic background of building the Budapest Metro line No.1.
In the second half of the 19th century Budapest became a metropolis. In 1873 it had more than 300.000 inhabitants, this number doubled in the next two decades. Huge infrastructural investments formed the city into the present tourist-luring townscape. In 1875 a new representative avenue was built between the center and the city park. For esthetic reasons no horse-pulled or electric tram line construction was allowed in this street. In 1896 the country celebrated the thousand year anniversary of the Hungarian statehood, and the city park was selected as the celebrations’ venue. The decision makers were pressed to seek for appropriate mass transport solutions and the mayor’s office wanted to raise the glare of the feast with an up-to-date technical solution. The monopolistic horse pulled tramway company Budapesti Közúti Vaspálya Társaság (BKVT) had operated with 700 horses since 1860 but was not open for any innovations. In 1887 a 1000 m track was been built by Siemens & Halske for electric tram with lower current collector (sunken below the surface). It was named “Budapest system” but its reliability was not too high because dirt could fall into the small ditch. Later this system was applied in Vienna and Berlin, too. For electricity supply a power plant was set up in “Akácfa street” by 3 pieces 100 HP steam turbine driven generators with 300 V DC. The idea of the underground came from Mór Balázs who did an excellent job in the management of the project. He received nobleness for his activity and his coats of arms contained the motives of the underground train, too. In January 1894 a tender was issued to solve the problem by an electric underground tram (see Fig.1.). This was a joint action by the two competitors: Budapesti Villamos Városi Vasút (BVVV – Budapest City Electric Train Company) and Budapesti Közúti Vaspálya Társaság (BKVT – Budapest Municipal Train Company). The decision was made on 9th of August, 1894. The tunnel and stations were built by entrepreneur Robert Wünsch, the boogie carriages were produced by Schlick Vasöntöde és Gépgyár (Schlick Iron Foundry and Machine Factory Company), and the electric devices were made by Siemens & Halske Co. The tender for the realization was issued in 1894, the construction took 21 months.
Fig.1.: Plan of the cross section (History of Budapest, Academy publ. 1978) Media:(Fig.1. Plan of the cross section - History of Budapest, Academy publ. 1978.jpg)
IV. Inauguration of the Metro Line No.1 and its long-term effect on Budapest Public transportation
The first electricity driven metro line in the continent (2nd in the world) was inaugurated on 2nd of May 1896 in the presence of Franz Joseph – Kaiser of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. On 8th of May Franz Joseph travelled on the whole line. This royal course was driven by the great-great grandfather of the author. The operating company was also renamed from Budapest Underground Electric Railway Company to Franz Josef Underground Electric Railway Company. During the remaining 8 months of 1896 the metro carried 3 million passengers. This number rose to 11 million by 1917. The operating hours were between 6 AM and 11 PM with 4 min succession slots. After World War II in 1949 the Fővárosi Villamos Közlekedési Vállalat (FVKV – Municipial Electric Tramway Company) took over the operation of ‘underground railway’ (in this time the name wasn’t ‘metro’ but ‘underground’ or ‘Milleneum underground’). In 1959 additional 16 pieces of second-cars were constructed with driver seat. In these years 1% of the mass transportation of the capital was handled by this line. Budapest has nowadays 4 metro lines, the last one was opened in 2014. The historic metro line No.1. (called ‘yellow line’ after the color of the carriages) is in good shape, plays an important role in urban traffic. More than 300 trips transport the 10 to 35 thousand passengers daily between the 11 stations. The Budapest metro line No.1. has been part of the World heritage since 2002 together with the avenue above it called “Andrássy Street”.
V. Key technical aspects of the Metro Line No.1. construction
a. The Tunnel The first metro tunnels were formed by brick-arches that required significant height. Due to the height constraints under Andrássy Street (former Sugár Street), in Budapest the cut-and-cover tunnel technics had to be applied for the first time under a main road. It served as a reference and standard for Boston, Paris and Berlin metro, this structure gauge became standard for long time. The cut-and-cover work was performed in two shifts with man and horse power. During the night shift electrical arc lightings were used. A total of 138,000 cubic meters of soil were excavated by hand, and 47,000 cubic meters of cement and 3,000 tons of iron were required for the support structure. The leaking water was trapped into collecting wells and was pumped up by electric suction pumps. The construction works (3.22km tunnels with 9 stops and 0.46 km line on the surface with 2 stops) were finished on time in the frame of the previously determined budget. The inner height of the tunnel is 2.65 m (3.5 m till the surface), it is limited by the crossing of the main sewage canal. The average width is 6 m (see Fig.1.). During the construction new materials were used. The concrete strengthened by iron was the invention of Robert Wünsch. The tunnel walls, the slab and a small bridge were built of ferroconcrete. The concrete was mixed by electrical mixers.
b. Carriages The City and South London Railway (C&SLR) applied independent locomotives in 1890. It hadn’t boogies but fixed axles with a small axle-base. The Budapest Metro was the first that had bidirectional motor carriages with two driver’s cabins. The boogies also included the motor. It was the first application of Siemens traction system in underground metro. Due to the tunnel heights-constraints this was the world’s first low floor chassis (thanks to the “goose neck” solution). The initial common fleet of the two operators consisted of 10 yellow metal covered carriages of Budapesti Villamos Városi Vasút (BVVV) see Fig.2. and 10 brown wood covered railway carriages of Budapesti Közúti Vaspálya Társaság (BKVT) – see Fig.4-5. The royal carriage No. 20. had extra solutions with a saloon. It was used by Kaiser Franz Joseph, King Carl IV., Kaiser Wilhelm, etc. Each railcar could accommodate 28 seated and 14 standing passengers. The original metal coated railcars had 11.77 kW LDo motors with Gall-chain for driving 650 mm diameter wheels. The old wood covered rail cars had 14.71 kW B 22/30 motors mounted on wheel-set axles with 800 mm diameter wheels). Nowadays 5 examples exist from the original fleet (see Table I.) Table I.: List of existing old carriages No. description location 1 the only remaining metal covered carriage (see Fig.2.) Underground Museum Budapest 11 wood covered Nostalgia carriage (see Fig.4.) in operation in Budapest 12 wood covered Hannover tram museum, Wehmingen, Germany 18 wood covered Seashore Trolley Museum, Kennebunkport, ME USA 19 wood covered (see Fig.5.) Underground Museum Budapest
Fig.2.: Historic metal covered carriage No.1. in the Underground Railway Museum (Photo: Peter Kadar) Media:( Fig.2. Historic metal covered carriage No.1. in the Underground Railway Museum - Photo Peter Kadar.jpg)
Between 1924 and 1930 the motorcars were overhauled. The simple sliding doors were doubled and got pneumatic drives, the boogies were enlarged, instead of 16-20 HP motors larger 60 HP power motors were built in (TR 4,5). From 1960 trailer carriages were added, too. The railcars were changed after 75 years of operation between 1971-73 and in 1987. The 23 new tripartite railcars were designed and built by the Hungarian Ganz Villamossági Művek (Ganz Electrical Works) and Ganz-MÁVAG (Ganz Hungarian General Wagon and Machinery Factory) in Budapest, Hungary. The Ganz articulated railcar designed for 190 passengers is tracked by four 66 kW TK44 A type hauling motors. Its nominal speed is 60 km/h, its total length is 30.37 m , it weighs 37 tons, the wheels’ diameter is 670 mm.
c. Stations The low-height stations served as a pattern for the Boston, Paris, Berlin and Buenos-Aires metro. It isn’t a random coincidence that the appearance of these stations is similar to Budapest stations. The line has 8 original and 3 additional underground stations. Above the original underground stations attractive entrance halls designed by György Brüggeman and “Schickendanz et Herczog” were erected. Unfortunately these halls can’t be seen anymore. Similar kiosks were built for the New-York, Buenos-Aires and Philadelphia subways, too. The walls of the 8 old stations are covered by porcelain ceramics produced by the Zsolnay Factory in Pécs, Hungary. The ferroconcrete ceiling is supported by riveted iron pillars. In 1995 the stations were renovated, fixed, insulated and dyed by anticorrosive painting (see Fig.3.).
Fig.3.: The Opera station (Photo: Peter Kadar) Media:(Fig.3. The Opera station - Photo Peter Kadar.jpg)
d. Track The 1435 mm standard gauge track was built from iron cross-ties ‘Banovits system’ containing asymmetric Vignoles rails (24.2 kg/m). The rail pieces for the smooth gliding were connected with lap-joint (patent of Hartman). This solution provided noiseless traffic not to disturb the promenade on the surface, the inhabitants and it saved the motors. The Siemens-Halske automatic signalization system showed red light if a train was in the next tunnel section. Free way was signalized by white light. In 1995 the rails were changed to 48 kg/m Vignoles rails, the old wooden sleepers were replaced by concrete holders (are noisier).
e. Power Supply Although Siemens had developed the so called “Budapest System” supplying power from underground via a channel laid under the street surface some years before, this method was not applied at the metro, nor was the London type “current pick-up third rail”. Budapest was the first city in the world to use the underground trolley system. The upper trolley-rail was designed with a special shallow collector. In an early plan three rails had been designed for lower current collector, but this idea was later abandoned. The 350 V DC hauling current was generated in the ‘Kertész utca – Gartner strasse’ (Akácfa utca) power station. The overhead supply was solved by 50 mm height two-pole double rails (used in mines). In the 1920’s supply voltage was raised to 550 V DC (nom. 600 V) and the double upper feeder rails were changed to a similar, single feeder rail with single pole feeding and lower rail feed-back.
VI. Reconstructions in the 20th century 120 years after the inauguration 8 out of the 11 stations are in the original shape. In the 1920’s important reconstruction works were performed. In the frame of this up-dating the chassis and the safety devices were changed. The bogies and the motors were also enlarged. The boarding doors were widened and the voltage level of the power supply was raised to 550 V DC, like at all the other ‘surface’ trams. By the beginning of the 1970’s the aged line already needed renovation, the increasing traffic load of Budapest and the connection to the new metro line No.2 underlined this necessity. In 1973, for the 100th anniversary of the unification of Buda, Pest and Óbuda (birthday of Budapest) the metro line No.1. was rejuvenated. In the reconstruction process the tracks, electricity system, carriages were changed. The tunnel, the stations were also renewed in its original artistic design. The traffic changed from the original ‘keep to left’ to the ‘keep to right’. For housing a new, larger shed was built on a new site. Two new stations were erected and the former non underground section was pushed down to new tunnel. In the 1950’s a 40 m long part of the old tunnel was separated and closed. In 1973 it was converted into the Museum of the first Budapest Underground Metro.
Fig.4.: Wood covered carriage No.11. in nostalgia operation on 2nd of May 2016 (Photo: Gabor Lovas) Media:(Fig.4. Wood covered carriage No.11. in nostalgia operation on 2nd of May 2016 - Photo Gabor Lovas.jpg)
Fig.5.: Historic wood covered carriage No.19. in the Underground Railway Museum (Photo: Peter Kadar) Media:( Fig.5. Historic wood covered carriage No.19. in the Underground Railway Museum - Photo Peter Kadar.jpg)
In 1996 the line celebrated its centenary. In a reconstruction program initiated by the Municipality of Budapest starting in 1993 the following areas were tackled: - reconstruction of the permanent way using a reinforced concrete bedding with flexible fastening and welded rails - reinforcing the roof of the tunnel and stations - overhauling the architectural, interior decoration and mechanical systems of stations - modernizing the electrical systems, the passenger safety and railway signaling systems, installing new safety features
What obstacles (technical, political, geographic) needed to be overcome?
The technical novelties and difficulties of the Budapest Metro Line No.1. - the horse-cart monopoly didn't support the development - there was not enough space anymore for the tram lines on the surface - there were only 21 months for the realization - the large avenue was turned off from the traffic infrastructure for 21 months - it was a challenge that two competitors agreed to realize the project together - the small space between the surface and the canalization system (the available height is only 2.6 m)
What features set this work apart from similar achievements?
The Budapest metro is the first commercial electrified underground train in the European continent. It has been in continuous operation since 1896. This achievement was a complex innovative solution of several engineering branches because - it was first in the cut-and-cover tunnel technics – under a main road - instead of deep-level tunnel - there wasn't independent locomotive - it had bidirectional motor carriages with two driver’s cabins - the bogie included the electric motor - it was the first city in the world to use the underground trolley system - it had the first underground current collector trolley instead of fourth current rail - electric lighting was applied in the carriages and stations, too - it was of low floor height (“goose neck” chassis) - it was the first application of Siemens traction system in underground metro - of the low tunnel height, this structure gauge became standard for long time - of the solution of overlapping rail jointing for smooth gliding - the security was supported by electrical signalization - it served as a reference and standard for Boston, Paris, Berlin and Buenos Aires metro The successful realization took only 21 months. The memories of early underground transportation have been carefully preserved for the future. The Underground has a well-shaped museum – close to the operating system. The project was performed by international cooperation.
Supporting texts and citations to establish the dates, location, and importance of the achievement: Minimum of five (5), but as many as needed to support the milestone, such as patents, contemporary newspaper articles, journal articles, or chapters in scholarly books. 'Scholarly' is defined as peer-reviewed, with references, and published. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. At least one of the references must be from a scholarly book or journal article. All supporting materials must be in English, or accompanied by an English translation.
PRIMARY REFERENCES –––––––– Conference paper – Peter Kadar: Metro line No.1. in Budapest IEEE HISTELCON 2015, 18-19 August, 2015 Tel Aviv, Israel pp. 1-6. Media:(BudapestMetroNo1 Histelcon2015 milestone ref.pdf) –––––––– Conference paper – Peter Kadar: The Drive and the Electrical Appliances in the Budapest Metro 120 Years ago IEEE HISTELCON 2017, 7-8 August, 2017 Kobe, Japan pp. 1-6. Media:( ElApplMetroNo1No1 Histelcon2017 milestone ref.pdf) –––––––– Siemens History Archive – Sabine Dittler: The first electrically powered underground on the European continent goes into operation in Budapest https://www.siemens.com/history/en/news/1193_underground_budapest.htm –––––––– INTERNET LINKS –––––––– Metro Line M1 (Budapest Metro) in https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metro_Line_M1_(Budapest_Metro) –––––––– An article – Short history of Millenium metro http://www.metro4.hu/en/metros-in-budapest/millenium-underground –––––––– An architectural viewpoint – Budapest Metro – Millennium Underground https://en.wikiarquitectura.com/building/budapest-metro-millennium-underground/ –––––––– City Guide – 5 minute article – Petra Berende: Retro railways: Ride the continent’s oldest metro in Budapest https://welovebudapest.com/en/2015/08/17/retro-railways-ride-the-continents-oldest-metro-in-budapest/ –––––––– 1 minute travel guide chapter – Millennium Underground http://visitbudapest.travel/guide/budapest-attractions/millennium-underground/ –––––––– Photo series – Brian Cohen: The Historic Line 1 Subway in Budapest: A Photographic Chronology http://thegate.boardingarea.com/the-historic-line-1-subway-in-budapest-a-photographic-chronology/ –––––––– Line description with station photos – Line M1 http://www.urbanrail.net/eu/hu/budapest/budapest-line1.htm –––––––– YOUTUBE VIDEOS –––––––– Millenium Subway Budapest 4 min 56 sec https://youtu.be/ARk7WGV2U-I –––––––– The Millenium Underground is 100 years old 15 min 14 sec https://youtu.be/tiz_b5jabW0 –––––––– Budapest Millenium Subway Carriage No. 11 in operation, 2011.05.08. 4 min 53 sec https://youtu.be/HyJ-jM6IAso –––––––– The Budapest Millenium Subway (1974) 14 min 38 sec https://youtu.be/odg5LCbEF1E –––––––– The story of the Millenium Subway Budapest 19 min 36 sec – in Hungarian https://youtu.be/E8speaKIMN4 –––––––– BOOKS IN ENGLISH –––––––– AGE OF ELECTRICITY Pioneering Achievements in Electrical Engineering pp 9-12 Franz-Josef-Elektrische Untergrundbahn Budapest H Media:(20140317_extract_age_of_electricity.pdf) https://www.siemens.com/history/pool/newsarchiv/newsmeldungen/2014/20140317_extract_age_of_electricity.pdf –––––––– Peripheral Flows – A Historical Perspective on Mobilities between Cores and Fringes Edited by Simone Fari and Massimo Moraglio.; Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2018 ISBN: 978-1-4438-9048-9 p 143-150 Media:(Peripheral Flows - BudMetro Extract.pdf) –––––––– A Century of Subways: Celebrating 100 Years of New York's Underground Railways 1st Edition by Brian J. Cudahy 2009 ISBN-13: 978-0823222933 Media:(Century of Subways - Extract.pdf) –––––––– Street and Electric Railways, 1902: Special Reports - United States. Census Office Edward Dana Durand, Thomas Commerford Martin p156 „Budapest was the first city in the world to use the underground trolley system” –––––––– The National Magazine: An Illustrated Monthly, Vol.11. Bostonian Publishing Company, 1900 p. 660 https://books.google.hu/books?id=bnceAQAAMAAJ „The electric subway at Budapest is the original one after which the Boston subway was modeled. The commissioners visited Budapest previous to completing plans for the Boston subway, and took many of their best ideas from the Hungarian system. The Budapest subway is longer than that at Boston but the latter is higher and broader, and much better lighted. The same system of checks is used, and aside from a difference in the building and arrangement of their cars, the Budapest and Boston subways are quite similar… … commissioners visited Budapest previous to completing plans for the Boston subway, and took many of their ideas...”
–––––––– BOOK IS HUNGARIAN –––––––– Dr. Kubinszky Mihály - Lovász István - Villányi György: Old Hungarian trams; Budapesti Városvédő Egylet, Bp., 1978, ISBN: 9789637537112 –––––––– Legát Tibor - Dr. Zsigmond Gábor: A villamos aranykora 1887 – 1923 (The golden age of the tram 1887-1923); Jószöveg Műhely; Budapest, 2012 –––––––– Medveczky Ágnes: A milleneumi Földalatti Vasút (The Budapest Underground Train) ; Közlekedési Dokumentációs Vállalat, Budapest, 1975 –––––––– A Millenniumi Földalatti vasút rövid története (Short history of the Budapest Underground) Villanyszerelők lapja, 2009 október –––––––– Németh János: History of Royal carriage No. 20. Budapest in 1965, manuscript –––––––– WEB SOURCES ABOUT THE FOLLOWER METRO LINES –––––––– Subway - The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica - https://www.britannica.com/technology/subway „Many other cities followed London’s lead. In Budapest a 2.5-mile (4-kilometre) electric subway was opened in 1896, using single cars with trolley poles; it was the first subway on the European continent. Considerable savings were achieved in its construction over earlier cut-and-cover methods by using a flat roof with steel beams instead of a brick arch, and therefore, a shallower trench.” –––––––– MBTA Green Line Historic Images - Celebrate Boston www.celebrateboston.com/mbta/green-line/tremont-street-subway.htm „Boston built the first subway in North America. Trolley car grid-lock and street congestion on main thoroughfares motivated the Massachusetts Legislature to authorize the construction of the subway. It opened on September 1, 1897. …….. The "cut and cover" method of construction was used, with a deep trench dug or "cut" on Tremont Street, and a steel structure built around it and then filled in or "covered up." The Budapest Subway, and the later Paris Metro, were visited by the Boston subway designers.” –––––––– Nation's First Subway Opens in Boston https://www.massmoments.org/moment-details/nations-first-subway-opens-in-boston.html „After considering various alternatives to ease congestion on Boston's streets, city officials decided to follow the example of London, Glasgow, and Budapest and build an underground system.” –––––––– Tremont Street subway https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tremont_Street_subway „The Tremont Street subway in Boston's MBTA Subway system is the oldest subway tunnel in North America and the third oldest still in use worldwide to exclusively use electric traction (after the City and South London Railway in 1890, and the Budapest Metro's Line 1 in 1896), opening on September 1, 1897.” –––––––– Underground Pioneers Clifton Hood https://www.city-journal.org/html/underground-pioneers-12552.html „Between 1895 and 1900, as New York’s courts dickered over the RTC’s budget and route, Glasgow, Budapest, and Boston unveiled new underground railways and Paris started to build its first metro.” –––––––– WEB SOURCES IN HUNGARIAN –––––––– Szeberényi Márton: A Millenniumi Földalatti Vasút vonala és annak története (The story of the first Budapest metro); http://digitus.itk.ppke.hu/~szema/FJFVV_von.html as it on 30/06/2015 –––––––– The Milleneum Subway Line of Budapest by Varga Ákos Endre; http://hampage.hu/kozlekedes/fav4/e_index.html as it on 30/06/2015 –––––––– P. Istvánfi: A FAV régi kocsijai (The old carriages of the Budapest Undergrounnd; www.villamosok.hu/metro/jarmu/favold/favold.html ––––––––
Supporting materials (supported formats: GIF, JPEG, PNG, PDF, DOC): All supporting materials must be in English, or if not in English, accompanied by an English translation. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. For documents that are copyright-encumbered, or which you do not have rights to post, email the documents themselves to firstname.lastname@example.org. Please see the Milestone Program Guidelines for more information.
Photos Fig.1. Plan of the cross section - History of Budapest, Academy publ. 1978 Fig.2. Historic metal covered carriage No.1. in the Underground Railway Museum - Photo Peter Kadar Fig.3. The Opera station - Photo Peter Kadar Fig.4. Wood covered carriage No.11. in nostalgia operation on 2nd of May 2016 - Photo Gabor Lovas Fig.5. Historic wood covered carriage No.19. in the Underground Railway Museum - Photo Peter Kadar __________________________________________________________________________ Attached files –––––––– Conference paper – Peter Kadar: Metro line No.1. in Budapest IEEE HISTELCON 2015, 18-19 August, 2015 Tel Aviv, Israel pp. 1-6. Media:(BudapestMetroNo1 Histelcon2015 milestone ref.pdf) –––––––– Conference paper – Peter Kadar: The Drive and the Electrical Appliances in the Budapest Metro 120 Years ago IEEE HISTELCON 2017, 7-8 August, 2017 Kobe, Japan pp. 1-6. Media:( ElApplMetroNo1No1 Histelcon2017 milestone ref.pdf) –––––––– AGE OF ELECTRICITY Pioneering Achievements in Electrical Engineering pp 9-12 Franz-Josef-Elektrische Untergrundbahn Budapest H Media:(20140317_extract_age_of_electricity.pdf) https://www.siemens.com/history/pool/newsarchiv/newsmeldungen/2014/20140317_extract_age_of_electricity.pdf –––––––– Peripheral Flows – A Historical Perspective on Mobilities between Cores and Fringes Edited by Simone Fari and Massimo Moraglio.; Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2018 ISBN: 978-1-4438-9048-9 p 143-150 Media:(Peripheral Flows - BudMetro Extract.pdf) –––––––– A Century of Subways: Celebrating 100 Years of New York's Underground Railways 1st Edition by Brian J. Cudahy 2009 ISBN-13: 978-0823222933 Media:(Century of Subways - Extract.pdf)
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