Milestone-Proposal talk:The Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) – Pune, India
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Review and support by Dr. Jacob Baars -- Juan Carlos (talk) 11:45, 31 July 2020 (UTC)[edit | reply | new]
I am happy to fully support this initiative. I consider myself capable in this matter, having spent most of my career closely attached to radio telescope projects at a leading level. I was assistant project manager for the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope in the Netherlands around 1970. Upon joining the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie in Bonn, Germany, I was Project Manager of the IRAM 30-m Millimeter Telescope in Spain (19180s) and the Heinrich Hertz Sub-millimeter Telescope in Arizona (1990s). After these projects I was Project Engineer for the Large Millimeter Telescope in Mexico during the design phase and I acted in several senior functions in the ALMA Project as ESO representative.
I have read the GMRT proposal that was attached to your message. It paints a good and complete picture of the project from the initial scientific justification and technical layout to the realization of the hardware in a remarkable indigenous concentration. I support it fully.
I would like to stress one aspect that for me is the most impressive achievement of the project. With the Ooty Telescope the Indian group of radio astronomers had already shown the capability to design and build instruments for a specific scientific purpose. When they considered how to realize a more powerful radio telescope, they recognized that concentrating on a low frequency instrument was not only astronomically highly relevant, because of the lack of such instruments world-wide, but also a viable avenue towards designing and building economically acceptable antenna structures. In short: they needed to build something big for a rock-bottom cost. The resulting design of the original SMART (Stretched Mesh Attached to Rope Trusses) telescope satisfied their goals: a high quality antenna, locally designed and constructed for an affordable low price.
With the GMRT India joined the "high technology" nations with an example of high performance technology, fully developed in the country, providing the science of astronomy with significant observational extension.
Jacob Baars, Member of the Historical Radio Astronomy working group of the IAU (Intl. Astronomical Union)
co-author of Book: “Radio Telescope Reflectors - Historical Development of Design and Construction” , 2017
Review and support by Prof. Richard Schilizzi, Chair of the IAU working group on History of Radioastronomy -- Juan Carlos (talk) 14:59, 2 August 2020 (UTC)[edit | reply | new]
Giant Metre-wave Radio Telescope – IEEE Milestone Proposal
India was one of five countries around the world that pioneered radio telescopes at metre wavelengths in the years since WWII, the others being Australia, Italy, the USA and the USSR (Russia and Ukraine). The Netherlands has followed in the last two decades. In India, this pioneering work was driven by Professor Govind Swarup, one of the major figures in global radio astronomy. His first telescope was the Ooty Radio Telescope (ORT), a cylindrical paraboloid 530m long by 30 m wide (collecting area ~16,000 m2), operating at 327 MHz and completed in 1970. After years of successful work with ORT during which the radio astronomy community built up substantially in India, Swarup led an international African-Indian proposal in 1978 for a large array of parabolic cylinders with collecting area ten times that of the ORT (~200000 m2). This was to be located on the equator in Africa and called the Giant Equatorial Radio Telescope (GERT). However, by the end of 1983, it was clear that GERT would not be funded and Swarup turned his attention to a concept for a new national telescope in India called the GMRT. This was no longer based on cylinders but on the more flexible dishes that allow the telescope to be directed to any point in the sky.
Its design encompasses a number of innovations, one of which, the SMART antenna, was considered for the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) at an early stage. In the end, the SKA choice went to a much more expensive antenna design driven by a scientific requirement to observe at a much higher frequency limit than was possible with the SMART concept.
Since being declared an international facility in 2001, the GMRT, with its ~50,000 m2 collecting area, has been recognised as the most sensitive fully-steerable low frequency telescope in the world, supported by a world-class scientific and engineering staff. It is a multi-purpose Observatory attracting observing proposals from around the world on most of the important topics in astronomy and astrophysics. It showcases Indian achievements and innovation on the scientific and engineering fronts, and has been instrumental in educating many young students who have gone on to careers in astronomy at the most prestigious institutes and universities in the world. The experience accumulated over the years allowed the Observatory to take on leadership of the Telescope Manager design package for the SKA, a significant recognition in itself.
All this has been made possible by the GMRT. It is a significant technical achievement and worthy of an IEEE Milestone Award for its innovation and value for humanity.
Richard T. Schilizzi |Emeritus Professor of Astrophysics Department of Physics and Astronomy | School of Natural Sciences | The University of Manchester Chair of the IAU working group on History of Radioastronomy
Approval by Advocate -- Juan Carlos (talk) 18:47, 2 August 2020 (UTC)[edit | reply | new]
The GMRT nomination really deserves to be approved as an IEEE Milestone. As Advocate, I fully endorse it. I’ve received only positive comments, some of them constructive- from IEEE members in the MTT and AP societies, -some of those comments lead to adjustments in the citation- But none of those persons volunteered to offer a complete expert evaluation. I’ve also had positive comments from Members of the History Committee of the American Astronomy Association, but none of the contacted had the time or felt like making an evaluation. Many mentioned the unique metric Microwave window that GMRT provided to their work in extra-galactic supernovae and pulsars observations, resulting in a significant improvement of our knowledge of the Universe. And that the observatory had also provided a unique access to a greater part of the southern celestial hemisphere. They also contributed to the clarification of dates related to the project (see below) On this discussion site I have reproduced positive and enthusiastic evaluations by two members of the International Astronomy Association’s Committee on the History of Radio Astronomy, from Germany and Great Britain. The independent expert evaluations condition is met.
We may have a borderline case in relation to the 25 years condition. The first records of observation (a telescope “first light” ) with the first antenna are dated 1994. But the real value of this telescope comes from observations profiting from the plurality of antennas and their correlation. That started to come later. In 1995 there were a few published papers about the early observations with GMRT, from 1999 onwards there were a lot, indicating the full power of the instrument.
In case of hydroelectric Projects, all the Citations and records refer to the date of the first generation, although the real usefulness of the project, the benefit to the humanity may have been many years later, when the lake is full and all the generators were finished and the full generation capacity of all the units was achieved. New features and renovations keep happening for decades.
We have a similar case here; it’s an excellent project, fully endorsed by prorninent scientists and in my opinion we can and should approve the milestone right now. The present form of the Citation was adjusted with the proposers after a teleconference with Robert Colburn to detail part of the technological significance of the achievement My suggestion for the dates in the tittle would be 1994-1999
neat project! I'm not sure the current citation does it justice, though - the current last sentence, "It has produced several front-line results in a diverse range of topics, greatly enhancing our understanding of the Universe." is particularly vague. Could I suggest some rewriting to make the significance of this project more clear? - maybe something such as:
India pioneered the 1990s revival of low-frequency radio astronomy with its GMRT system of thirty antennas stretching across 25 kilometers, one of the world's most sensitive 110–1460 MHz telescopes. Locally-designed innovations included new techniques in antenna development, digital signal processing, and optical fibers. GMRT-based research produced important discoveries regarding the sun, pulsars, galaxy development, and cosmology, while advancing scientific technology and professional astronomy in India.