Property:Proposed Milestone Plaque Citation

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"The Eagle has landed." On July 20, 1969, half-a-billion television viewers heard astronaut Neil Armstrong live from the moon, across a quarter-million miles of space. The Apollo 11 Unified S-Band communication system, pioneered by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and MIT's Lincoln Laboratory, delivered his voice while simultaneously relaying command, tracking, and imagery data between multiple spacecraft and a global network of land-based, airborne, and seaborne tracking stations.  +
'''Broadband. Born here in 1995 ''' Broadband as we know it began with the first highly integrated ADSL solution, created in Antwerp by Alcatel. The system was revolutionary, taking Internet access speeds to new heights while making broadband affordable. The ingenuity of Alcatel engineers truly accelerated Broadband Internet availability for society, changing our lives and the world, as we know it.  +
'A pulse oximeter' is a medical device monitoring non-invasively patents' blood oxigen saturation, developed in 1972 at Nihon Kohden (Japan). In the following decades, pulse oximeters were further developed and provided reliable tools for easy and immediate detection of oxigen saturation values, paving the way to the widespread commercialization of devices that became a standard of care in most clinical settings and also in home monitoring.  +
(Note that there will be four plaques in order to provide space to list the achievements) BELL LABS – WIRELESS AND SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS, 1925-1983 Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. introduced: the first radio astronomical observations (1933), Smith Chart (1939), early mobile phone service (1946), cellular wireless concept (1947), TDX Microwave Radio System (1947), TD Transcontinental Microwave Radio System (1950), Telstar - first active communications satellite (1962), first observation of the cosmic background radiation (1964), first U.S. cellular wireless system (1978), digital cellular technology (1980), and the AR6A SSB-SC Microwave System (1981). (65 words, not including the title) BELL LABS - DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND COMPUTING, 1925-1983 Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. introduced: the first electronic speech synthesizer (1936), first binary digital computer (1939), first long-distance computing (1940), digitized and synthesized music (1957), digital computer art (1962), text-to-speech synthesis (1962), UNIX operating system (1969), the C and S languages (1972, 1976), first single-chip digital signal processor (1979), single-chip 32-bit microprocessor (1980), 5ESS Digital Switching System (1982), and C++ language (1983). (62 words not including the title) BELL LABS - SOLID STATE AND OPTICAL DEVICES, 1925-1983 Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. introduced: the point-contact and junction transistors (1947, 1948), zone refining (1951), silicon epitaxy (1951), ion implantation (1952), solar cell (1954), oxide masking (1955), laser concept (1958), MOSFET (1959), foil electret microphone (1962), CO2 laser (1964), silicon gate (1966), heterostructure semiconductor laser (1968), charge coupled device (1969), theory of disordered states of matter (1977), heterojunction phototransistor (1980), and VLSI CMOS technology and circuits (1981). (67 words, not including the title) BELL LABS - COMMUNICATIONS THEORY AND NETWORKS, 1925-1983 Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. introduced: type A facsimile service (1925), first long-distance television transmission (1927), negative feedback amplifier (1927), first stereo sound transmission (1933), Hamming error-correcting codes (1948), information theory (1948), direct distance dialing (1951), TAT-1 transatlantic telephone cable (1956), T1 transmission system (1962), touch-tone dialing (1963), 1ESS electronic switch (1965), wide area telephone 800 service (1965), and first U.S. commercial fiber-optic system (1977). (64 words, not including the title) (Citations modified: Mar. 2014)  
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A dynamo with a slotted ring armature, described and built at the University of Pisa by Antonio Pacinotti, was a significant step leading to practical electrical machines for direct current. Groups of turns of the closed winding were connected to the bars of a commutator. The machine worked as a motor also.  +
A pioneering achievement in the national development of the near-millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength ranges occurred at the Department of Quasioptics of the Institute of Radio-Physics and Electronics NASU in 1966, when the hollow dielectric beam waveguide and the kit of associated components were designed. Led by Yevgeny M. Kuleshov and Moisei S. Yanovsky, this work laid foundation for the original transmission-line technology and measuring techniques, with main application in hot plasma diagnostics in the Tokamak nuclear fusion machines.  +
A research team in the Physics department of Dundee University, Scotland demonstrated in 1979 that amorphous silicon field-effect transistors were able to switch liquid crystal arrays. Other semiconductor thin film materials had been found to be unsuitable for deposition on large area substrates. The invention laid the foundation for the commercial development of flat panel television displays.  +
A self-contained portable digital camera was invented at an Eastman Kodak Company laboratory. It used movie camera optics, a charge-coupled device as an electronic light sensor, a temporary buffer of random-access memory, and image storage on a digital cassette. Subsequent commercial digital cameras using flash memory storage revolutionized how images are captured, processed, and shared, creating opportunities in commerce, education, and global communications.  +
A vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) was conceived at Tokyo Institute of Technology in 1977 and its leading research has been pursued. The laser-cavity is vertical to the surface and can be short near to wavelength. This enabled monolithic fabrication, single-frequency operation, and continuous-frequency tuning. The VCSEL has been used for communication and sensing as in datacoms, computer mice, printers, 3D face-recognition, and laser radars.  +
ASCII, a character-encoding scheme originally based on the Latin alphabet, became the most common character encoding on the World Wide Web through 2007. ASCII is the basis of most modern character-encoding schemes. The American Standards Association X3.2 subcommittee published the first edition of the ASCII standard in 1963. Its first widespread commercial implementation was in the American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T) Teletypewriter eXchange network and Teletype Model 33 teleprinters.  +
Alan Dower Blumlein filed a patent for a two-channel audio system called “stereo” on 14 December 1931. It included a "shuffling" circuit to preserve directional sound, an orthogonal “Blumlein Pair” of velocity microphones, the recording of two orthogonal channels in a single groove, stereo disc-cutting head, and hybrid transformer to mix directional signals. Blumlein brought his equipment to Abbey Road Studios in 1934 and recorded the London Philharmonic Orchestra.  +
Allen B. DuMont, Television Pioneer , started DuMont Laboratories in his garage located about one quarter mile to the southwest. There he developed the modern oscilloscope and the first commercially successful Cathode Ray Tube for television. DuMont introduced the first all-electronic television sets in 1938 and established the first television network with stations WABD and WTTG. On April 30, 1952, Montclair State Teachers College, with DuMont support, pioneered educational television.  +
Alvin was the first manned submersible to explore hydrothermal vents in the 1970s. In 1985 and 1986,''Alvin,'' ''Argo,'' and ''Jason'' -- special vehicles developed by Woods Hole Oceanic Institution to carry sensors, sonars, and an imaging system with remote-operated cameras -- surveyed the wreck of the ''Titanic.'' These expeditions were highly successful, and made possible advances in ocean sciences and engineering.  +
An industry consortium published the first Universal Serial Bus (USB) specification in January 1996. Initially intended to simplify attaching electronic devices to a PC, USB became a very successful low-cost, high-speed interface for home and business use. Its ability to support new device classes and functionalities, including data storage, power delivery, and battery charging, has made USB's cabling, connectors, and logo recognizable worldwide.  +
As an electro-mechanical method, lens stabilization is the most effective for removing blurring effects from involuntary hand movement or shaking of the camera. Panasonic Corporation has regarded an image stabilization system, or an image stabilizer, as the most practical for avoiding camera blur and immediately begun to develop it.  +
As part of the landmark International Electrical Exhibition organized by the Franklin Institute and held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1884, the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, a predecessor of IEEE, held its first conference on 7-8 October 1884. This meeting was the first formal technical conference on electrical engineering held in the United States.  +
At Tokyo Institute of Technology, the single-mode semiconductor laser for long-wavelength optical fiber communication was realized and pioneered, ensuring consistent single-mode operations even under high-speed direct modulations. By integrating wavelength-tunable function into a laser cavity, the single-mode laser propelled advancements in high-capacity optical fiber communications, fundamentally shaping our present internet society.  +
At the 1891 International Electrotechnical Exhibition, Oskar von Miller and Michael Dolivo-Dobrowolsky from Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft (AEG), Germany, and Charles Eugene Lancelot Brown from Oerlikon, Switzerland, demonstrated the world’s first long distance (175km), high voltage (15kV), highly efficient (75%) Lauffen-Frankfurt electric power transmission of 300 horsepower, using three-phase alternating current. This demonstration directly influenced the eventual worldwide dominance of electric power transmission using three-phase alternating current systems.  +
At this location, 391 San Antonio Road, the Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory manufactured the first silicon devices in what became known as Silicon Valley. Some of the talented scientists and engineers initially employed there left to found their own companies, leading to the birth of the silicon electronics industry in the region. Hundreds of firms in electronics and computing can trace their origins back to Shockley Semiconductor.  +