Milestone-Proposal:Krka – Šibenik Electric Power System
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This Proposal has been approved, and is now a Milestone
To the proposer’s knowledge, is this achievement subject to litigation?
Is the achievement you are proposing more than 25 years old?
Is the achievement you are proposing within IEEE’s designated fields as defined by IEEE Bylaw I-104.11, namely: Engineering, Computer Sciences and Information Technology, Physical Sciences, Biological and Medical Sciences, Mathematics, Technical Communications, Education, Management, and Law and Policy.
Did the achievement provide a meaningful benefit for humanity?
Was it of at least regional importance?
Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to pay for the milestone plaque(s)?
Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to arrange the dedication ceremony?
Has the IEEE Section in which the milestone is located agreed to take responsibility for the plaque after it is dedicated?
Has the owner of the site agreed to have it designated as an IEEE Milestone? Yes
Year or range of years in which the achievement occurred:
Title of the proposed milestone:
Krka – Šibenik Electric Power System
Plaque citation summarizing the achievement and its significance:
In what IEEE section(s) does it reside?
IEEE Organizational Unit(s) which have agreed to sponsor the Milestone:
IEEE Organizational Unit(s) paying for milestone plaque(s):
IEEE Organizational Unit(s) arranging the dedication ceremony:
IEEE section(s) monitoring the plaque(s):
Please note: your email address and contact information will be masked on the website for privacy reasons. Only IEEE History Center Staff will be able to view the email address.
Street address(es) and GPS coordinates of the intended milestone plaque site(s):
Describe briefly the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s). The intended site(s) must have a direct connection with the achievement (e.g. where developed, invented, tested, demonstrated, installed, or operated, etc.). A museum where a device or example of the technology is displayed, or the university where the inventor studied, are not, in themselves, sufficient connection for a milestone plaque.
Please give the address(es) of the plaque site(s) (GPS coordinates if you have them). Also please give the details of the mounting, i.e. on the outside of the building, in the ground floor entrance hall, on a plinth on the grounds, etc. If visitors to the plaque site will need to go through security, or make an appointment, please give the contact information visitors will need. Only ruins of the first power plant (Jaruga I) exist today. But the the power plant built in 1903 (Jaruga II) is still in operation. A memorial house („Šupuk House") devoted to Ante Šupuk, one of the builders of the first Krka electric power system, could also be a potential site for the plaque.
Are the original buildings extant?
Details of the plaque mounting:
How is the site protected/secured, and in what ways is it accessible to the public?
Both sites are secure and accessible to public.
Who is the present owner of the site(s)?
Hrvatska elektroprivreda (HEP) and Krka National Park Dražen Šupuk, a direct descendant of Ante Šupuk, is the owner of the „Šupuk House“.
What is the historical significance of the work (its technological, scientific, or social importance)?
It was the first AC electric power system in Croatia and one of first multiphase AC systems in the world. Two generators (42 Hz, 550 kW each) and the transformers were produced by the Hungarian company Ganz. The transmission line from the power plant to the City of Šibenik was 11.5 kilometres long and the municipal distribution grid 3000/110V included six transforming stations. The system Supplied 340 street lights and some electrified houses in the town. Three years later after the first Jaruga power plant, the construction of the second Jaruga hydro plant began. Two three phase, 50 Hz, 5.5 MW generators were installed. A new transmission system was built and local grid enlarged. The historical and social significance of the proposed milestone were presented at the 2007 History of Electro technology Conference in Newark, NJ.
What obstacles (technical, political, geographic) needed to be overcome?
At the time when Krka - Šibenik was built there was no transmission system for larger distance, Krka-Šibenik was one of first integrated systems. It was a two-phase system in time when major cities like London, Frankfurt and Roma had one-phase systems. At the time multiphase systems were considered less secure. With time other cities also adopted multiphase systems, this is kept up until today. The two-phase transmission lines were built on the same wooden poles as was the telephone line.
What features set this work apart from similar achievements?
Ganz & Co had previously built an alternator in Rome Tivoli (A1) - a single-phase generator which remained in operation for a limited time. The Power Plant Jaruga 1 (in the Krka-Šibenik system) held Ganz's first multi-phase generator (A2). Furthermore, the Krka-Šibenik system was unique in many ways. Several Zipernowsky, Bláthy and Déri (who, at the time, all worked for Ganz) inventions were first used in Šibenik: ZBD transformers, Blathy watt-meters, etc. The transmission line was also quite interesting. Built on wooden poles it had 6 wires: 4 power conductors (double two-phase line) and a communication (telephone) line. As the power system was set to operation on the night of 28 August 1895, the telephone line (on the transmission poles) was used for communication between the "control centre" (Villa Meichsner) and the power plant.
Except for maintenance and several outages, the Krka-Šibenik Power System, operated from 1895 continuously. The Second power plant Jaruga 2 (which is still in operation today) and additional transmission lines were added to the system in 1903. The Jaruga 1 power plant was shut down in 1914 (as WWI begun), but the Krka-Šibenik system (at the time powered by two other power plants - Jaruga 2 and Manojlovac) remained in operation.
Supporting texts and citations to establish the dates, location, and importance of the achievement: Minimum of five (5), but as many as needed to support the milestone, such as patents, contemporary newspaper articles, journal articles, or chapters in scholarly books. 'Scholarly' is defined as peer-reviewed, with references, and published. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. At least one of the references must be from a scholarly book or journal article. All supporting materials must be in English, or accompanied by an English translation.
Supporting materials (supported formats: GIF, JPEG, PNG, PDF, DOC): All supporting materials must be in English, or if not in English, accompanied by an English translation. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. For documents that are copyright-encumbered, or which you do not have rights to post, email the documents themselves to firstname.lastname@example.org. Please see the Milestone Program Guidelines for more information.
Please email a jpeg or PDF a letter in English, or with English translation, from the site owner(s) giving permission to place IEEE milestone plaque on the property, and a letter (or forwarded email) from the appropriate Section Chair supporting the Milestone application to email@example.com with the subject line "Attention: Milestone Administrator." Note that there are multiple texts of the letter depending on whether an IEEE organizational unit other than the section will be paying for the plaque(s).