Edit Proposal: Milestone-Proposal:Global Positioning System (GPS), 1973 You do not have permission to edit this page, for the following reason: You are not currently logged in. The action you have requested is limited to users in the group: Users. Please log in or create an account. Docket ID: (admins only) Thank you for proposing a technical achievement for possible recognition as an IEEE Milestone in Electrical Engineering and Computing. Your efforts help preserve the heritage of technology. Detailed information on the Milestone application process may be found at: Milestone Guidelines and How to Propose a Milestone. At least one of the proposer(s) must be an IEEE Member (including Student Member) in good standing. To the proposer’s knowledge, is this achievement subject to litigation? If the answer is "yes", the proposal cannot proceed further. Yes No You must be able to answer "yes" to all of the following questions. If the answer to any of the following questions is "no", the proposal cannot proceed further. Contact us at email@example.com if you are unable to answer "yes" to all of the following and would still like to proceed. Is the achievement you are proposing more than 25 years old? Yes No Is the achievement you are proposing within IEEE’s designated fields as defined by IEEE Bylaw I-104.11, namely: Engineering, Computer Sciences and Information Technology, Physical Sciences, Biological and Medical Sciences, Mathematics, Technical Communications, Education, Management, and Law and Policy. Yes No Did the achievement provide a meaningful benefit for humanity? Yes No Was it of at least regional importance? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to pay for the milestone plaque(s)? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to arrange the dedication ceremony? Yes No Has the IEEE Section in which the milestone is located agreed to take responsibility for the plaque after it is dedicated? Yes No Has the owner of the site given permission to place an IEEE plaque? Yes No Year or range of years in which the achievement occurred: Title of the proposed milestone. (Include date or date range in title. Example: “Alternating Current Electrification, 1886”) Please provide a plaque citation in English summarizing the achievement and its significance. Text absolutely limited by plaque dimensions to 70 words; 60 is preferable for aesthetic reasons. NOTE: The IEEE History Committee shall have final determination on the wording of the citation. Names of living persons are not normally used in citations. Exceptions to this are cases where the person's name is linked to the achievement itself (e.g. the Lempel-Ziv algorithm, Maxwell's Equations, etc.) or where the person's name is so widely recognizeable to the general public that it makes sense to use it. When used, the names should be the names of the engineers, scientists, or technologists who actually made the achievement, rather than managers or executives. For more information and suggestions about writing milestone citations, please visit Helpful Hints on Citations, Plaque Locations. On the Labor Day weekend in 1973, Col. B. Parkinson and his team of USAF officers spent time at the Pentagon in Washington D. C. preparing to receive approval for launching the development of the most ambitious positioning and navigation system coined as NAVSTAR GPS (Navigation Satellite for Timing and Ranging Global Positioning System) or GPS for short. DSARC finally approved the system in December 1973 after it was structured as a multi-service program. The significant contributors to the successful DSARC approval included the USAF sponsored 621B program of Aerospace Corporation and the demonstration of the viability of launching accurate atomic clocks in space by the Timation program led by Dr. Roger Easton of NRL. The GPS system received its IOC (Initial Operational Capability) in December 1993 and FOC (Final Operational Capability) in April 1995. It was initially developed for military applications only. However, 1 September 1983 incident of USSR shooting down Korean Airlines commercial plane as it happened to stray unintentionally into Soviet airspace led President Reagan to approve the use of GPS for all civilian users worldwide free of cost. Initial estimates of positional performance pointed to a 10 meters accuracy for GPS. The operational system has since demonstrated accuracies of much better than the theoretical estimates. The operational system has also encountered unexpected vulnerability to intentional and unintentional jamming as well as intentional spoofing of its signals. Currently, significant resources are being allocated to make the GPS signals more robust and resistant to any type of foul play. However, the precise timing capability of the GPS remains relatively free from such interference and provides accurate time for worldwide applications and commerce with an accuracy of a few nano-seconds. Admittedly, GPS has become a de-facto utility and several copy-cat systems have sprung up including the GLONASS (Russian), Galilleo (European), Beidou (Chinese), IRNSS (Indian) and QZSS (Japanese). Most of these do not provide the full capability of the GPS and tend to be applicable to the limited regional areas of the developing nation. Metropolitan Los Angeles is justifiably the hub of the GPS development. In the 1970’s Magnavox Company in Torrance was contracted to develop a variety of first generation GPS receivers to demonstrate proof-of-concept for GPS. In the 1980’s Rockwell Corporation manufactured all the satellites for the initial GPS constellation in Downy. LAAFB (Los Angeles Air Force Base) has always been the manager of the GPS program. In what IEEE section(s) will the milestone plaque(s) reside? Please specify the IEEE Organizational Unit(s) which have agreed to sponsor the Milestone, and supply name and contact information for the senior officer from those OU(s). Sponsorship has three aspects: 1) Payment for the cost of the plaque(s), 2) Arranging the dedication ceremony, and 3) agreeing to monitor the plaque and to let IEEE History Center staff know in case the plaque needs to be moved, is no longer secure, etc. Number 3 must be done by the IEEE Section(s) in which the plaque(s) is located, but aspects 1 and 2 can be done by any IEEE Organizational Unit, and they need not be the same one. Please note: your email address and contact information will be masked on the website for privacy reasons. Only IEEE History Center Staff will be able to view the email address. IEEE Organizational Unit(s) paying for milestone plaque(s) Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE Organizational Unit(s) arranging the dedication ceremony Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE section(s) monitoring the plaque IEEE Section: IEEE Section Chair name: IEEE Section Chair e-mail: IEEE Section: IEEE Section Chair name: IEEE Section Chair e-mail: Milestone proposer(s) Proposer name: Proposer email: Proposer name: Proposer email: Proposer name: Proposer email: Street address(es) and GPS coordinates of the intended milestone plaque site(s). Please include coordinates in decimal format rather than degrees. What is the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s) relation to the achievement? The intended site(s) must have a direct connection with the achievement (e.g. where developed, invented, tested, demonstrated, installed, or operated, etc.). A museum where a device or example of the technology is displayed, or the university where the inventor studied, are not, in themselves, sufficient connection for a milestone plaque. Also, please Describe briefly the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s). (e.g. Is it corporate buildings? Historic Site? Residential? Are there other historical markers already at the site?) Are the original buildings extant? Please provide the details of the mounting, i.e. on the outside of the building, in the ground floor entrance hall, on a plinth on the grounds, etc. How is the intended plaque site protected/secured, and in what ways is it accessible to the public? If visitors to the plaque site will need to go through security, or make an appointment, please give details as well as the contact information visitors will need in order to arrange to visit the plaque. Who is the present owner of the site(s)? In the space below, please describe in detail: the historic significance of the achievement, its importance to the evolution of electrical and computer engineering and science, its importance to regional/national/international development, its benefits to humanity, the ways the achievement was a significant advance rather than an incremental improvement of existing technology. The material submitted here will constitute the main descriptive article on the ETHW website for readers to learn about the milestone. Space is unlimited, and detail is encouraged. Most milestones require 1000 to 1500 words of support, however there is no word limit. The article should be readable by a wide audience that includes practicing engineers, scholars of history, and the general public. Some examples of the text of good milestone articles are First Radio Astronomical Observations Using Very Long Baseline Interferometry] and G3_Facsimile International Standardization of G3 Facsimile (Do not worry about the formatting of the page, IEEE History Center Staff will do that afterwards.) What is the historical significance of the work (its technological, scientific, or social importance)? GPS has completely revolutionized the navigation capability of not only military weapons but all civil life throughout the Globe. By providing a meter or sub-meter positioning accuracy, GPS enables military commanders to perform surgical strikes which minimize non-combat related casualties. For day-to-day lives of humanity all over the world, GPS has enabled the development of automated mapping and navigational systems. GPS has, in short, become a universal utility of all things on the move. What obstacles (technical, political, geographic) needed to be overcome? The approval by the DSARC at the Pentagon in December 1973 was the initial milestone for the GPS program to get its lifeline. Immediately following this milestone, analytical attributes of the system were established along with the development of representative receiver sets when USAF, the program manager, awarded contracts to Magnavox Company and Texas Instruments. USAF Avionics Laboratory in Dayton, Ohio also awarded a contract to Rockwell Collins for the development of the GDM (Generalized Development Model) GPS receiver to test system performance for high dynamics and anti-jam applications such as in a military aircraft. To test performance of these initial receiver sets it was necessary to develop ground facilities at Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG), popularly known as the “Inverted Range” facility. This facility installed transmitters on the ground to provide signals similar to the signals that were to be broadcast by the satellites for the operational GPS. What features set this work apart from similar achievements? The best PNT capability of military systems prior to the availability of GPS was about 200 meters in position and a few microseconds in time. GPS has significantly improved these metrics. Additionally, the previous performance was limited to the theater of operations while GPS makes its performance uniformly available globally. GPS has also revolutionized the availability of PNT capability to everyday lives of everyone in the world. GPS has enabled very accurate time synchronization globally leading to improved communications and commerce. GPS has become a stellar provider of routine driving directions and better traffic management. Supporting texts and citations to establish the dates, location, and importance of the achievement. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Minimum of five (5), but as many as needed to support the milestone, such as patents, contemporary newspaper articles, journal articles, or chapters in scholarly books. At least one of the references must be from a scholarly book or journal article. 'Scholarly' is defined as peer-reviewed, with references, and published. The full reference, in English, must be uploaded, not just the citation. See below section for details on uploading material to the website. All supporting materials must be in English, or accompanied by an English translation. 1) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Positioning_System 2) "Why Did the Department of Defense Develop GPS?". Trimble Navigation Ltd. 3) "A Guide to the Global Positioning System (GPS) — GPS Timeline". Radio Shack. 4) “The Origin of Global Positioning System and the Pioneers Who Launched the System, Part 1 & 2” by Bradford W. Parkinson and Stephen T. Powers, http://gpsworld.com/origins-gps-part-1/ 5) "The Mathematics of GPS". siam.org 6) Bancroft, S. (January 1985). "An Algebraic Solution of the GPS Equations". IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems. AES-21: 56–59. Bibcode:1985 ITAES..21...56B 7) McNamara, Joel (2008). GPS For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. p. 59. 8) Navigation, Journal of the Institute of Navigation, Vol. 25, N0. 2, Summer 1978 Please refer to the first reference cited above for a detailed summary of the system capability and timeline. Supporting materials (supported formats: GIF, JPEG, PNG, PDF, DOC) which can be made publicly available on the IEEE History Center’s website (i.e. unencumbered by copyright, or with the copyright holder’s permission). All supporting materials must be in English, or if not in English, accompanied by an English translation. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Images and photographs are especially appreciated, however, it is necessary that you list the copyright owner for these and obtain the copyright owner’s permission to reuse. For documents that are copyright-encumbered, or which you do not have rights to post, email the documents themselves to firstname.lastname@example.org. Please see the Milestone Program Guidelines for more information. To add attachments, first upload the file and add by adding the text: [[Media:(filename)]] For example, if the file you uploaded was named "Milestone Reference.pdf", include the text: [[Media:Milestone Reference.pdf]] in the appropriate field. • GPS technology has matured into a resource that goes far beyond its original design goals • These days scientists, sportsmen, farmers, soldiers, pilots, surveyors, hikers, delivery drivers, sailors, dispatchers, lumberjacks, fire-fighters, and people from many other walks of life are using GPS in ways that make their work more productive, safer, and sometimes even easier Location - determining a basic position Navigation - getting from one location to another Tracking - monitoring the movement of people and things Mapping - creating maps of the world Timing - bringing precise timing to the world Please email a jpeg or PDF a letter in English, or with English translation, from the site owner(s) giving permission to place IEEE milestone plaque on the property, and a letter (or forwarded email) from the appropriate Section Chair supporting the Milestone application to email@example.com with the subject line "Attention: Milestone Administrator." Note that there are multiple texts of the letter depending on whether an IEEE organizational unit other than the section will be paying for the plaque(s). Submit this proposal to the IEEE History Committee for review. Only check this when the proposal is finished Summary: This is a minor edit Watch this page Cancel Retrieved from "http://ieeemilestones.ethw.org/Milestone-Proposal:Global_Positioning_System_(GPS),_1973"