Edit Proposal: Milestone-Proposal:Gapless Metal Oxide Surge Arrester (MOSA) for electric power systems,1975 You do not have permission to edit this page, for the following reason: You are not currently logged in. The action you have requested is limited to users in the group: Users. Please log in or create an account. Docket ID: (admins only) Thank you for proposing a technical achievement for possible recognition as an IEEE Milestone in Electrical Engineering and Computing. Your efforts help preserve the heritage of technology. Detailed information on the Milestone application process may be found at: Milestone Guidelines and How to Propose a Milestone. At least one of the proposer(s) must be an IEEE Member (including Student Member) in good standing. To the proposer’s knowledge, is this achievement subject to litigation? If the answer is "yes", the proposal cannot proceed further. None Yes No You must be able to answer "yes" to all of the following questions. If the answer to any of the following questions is "no", the proposal cannot proceed further. Contact us at email@example.com if you are unable to answer "yes" to all of the following and would still like to proceed. Is the achievement you are proposing more than 25 years old? Yes No Is the achievement you are proposing within IEEE’s designated fields as defined by IEEE Bylaw I-104.11, namely: Engineering, Computer Sciences and Information Technology, Physical Sciences, Biological and Medical Sciences, Mathematics, Technical Communications, Education, Management, and Law and Policy. Yes No Did the achievement provide a meaningful benefit for humanity? Yes No Was it of at least regional importance? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to pay for the milestone plaque(s)? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to arrange the dedication ceremony? Yes No Has the IEEE Section in which the milestone is located agreed to take responsibility for the plaque after it is dedicated? Yes No Has the owner of the site given permission to place an IEEE plaque? Yes No Year or range of years in which the achievement occurred: Title of the proposed milestone. (Include date or date range in title. Example: “Alternating Current Electrification, 1886”) Please provide a plaque citation in English summarizing the achievement and its significance. Text absolutely limited by plaque dimensions to 70 words; 60 is preferable for aesthetic reasons. NOTE: The IEEE History Committee shall have final determination on the wording of the citation. Names of living persons are not normally used in citations. Exceptions to this are cases where the person's name is linked to the achievement itself (e.g. the Lempel-Ziv algorithm, Maxwell's Equations, etc.) or where the person's name is so widely recognizeable to the general public that it makes sense to use it. When used, the names should be the names of the engineers, scientists, or technologists who actually made the achievement, rather than managers or executives. For more information and suggestions about writing milestone citations, please visit Helpful Hints on Citations, Plaque Locations. Gapless Metal Oxide Surge Arrester (MOSA) for electric power systems,1975 Meidensha Corporation developed MOSA and its mass production system by innovating on Panasonic Corporation’s ZnO varistor basic patent. MOSA dramatically raised performance levels against multiple lightning strikes and contamination and led to the UHV protective device development. This technology contributed to improving the safety and reliability of electric power systems and to establishing the international standards. In what IEEE section(s) will the milestone plaque(s) reside? Please specify the IEEE Organizational Unit(s) which have agreed to sponsor the Milestone, and supply name and contact information for the senior officer from those OU(s). Sponsorship has three aspects: 1) Payment for the cost of the plaque(s), 2) Arranging the dedication ceremony, and 3) agreeing to monitor the plaque and to let IEEE History Center staff know in case the plaque needs to be moved, is no longer secure, etc. Number 3 must be done by the IEEE Section(s) in which the plaque(s) is located, but aspects 1 and 2 can be done by any IEEE Organizational Unit, and they need not be the same one. Please note: your email address and contact information will be masked on the website for privacy reasons. Only IEEE History Center Staff will be able to view the email address. IEEE Organizational Unit(s) paying for milestone plaque(s) Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE Organizational Unit(s) arranging the dedication ceremony Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE section(s) monitoring the plaque IEEE Section: IEEE Section Chair name: IEEE Section Chair e-mail: Milestone proposer(s) Proposer name: Proposer email: Street address(es) and GPS coordinates of the intended milestone plaque site(s). Please include coordinates in decimal format rather than degrees. What is the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s) relation to the achievement? The intended site(s) must have a direct connection with the achievement (e.g. where developed, invented, tested, demonstrated, installed, or operated, etc.). A museum where a device or example of the technology is displayed, or the university where the inventor studied, are not, in themselves, sufficient connection for a milestone plaque. Also, please Describe briefly the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s). (e.g. Is it corporate buildings? Historic Site? Residential? Are there other historical markers already at the site?) Are the original buildings extant? Please provide the details of the mounting, i.e. on the outside of the building, in the ground floor entrance hall, on a plinth on the grounds, etc. How is the intended plaque site protected/secured, and in what ways is it accessible to the public? If visitors to the plaque site will need to go through security, or make an appointment, please give details as well as the contact information visitors will need in order to arrange to visit the plaque. Who is the present owner of the site(s)? In the space below, please describe in detail: the historic significance of the achievement, its importance to the evolution of electrical and computer engineering and science, its importance to regional/national/international development, its benefits to humanity, the ways the achievement was a significant advance rather than an incremental improvement of existing technology. The material submitted here will constitute the main descriptive article on the ETHW website for readers to learn about the milestone. Space is unlimited, and detail is encouraged. Most milestones require 1000 to 1500 words of support, however there is no word limit. The article should be readable by a wide audience that includes practicing engineers, scholars of history, and the general public. Some examples of the text of good milestone articles are First Radio Astronomical Observations Using Very Long Baseline Interferometry] and G3_Facsimile International Standardization of G3 Facsimile (Do not worry about the formatting of the page, IEEE History Center Staff will do that afterwards.) What is the historical significance of the work (its technological, scientific, or social importance)? Overvoltages in electrical supply networks result from the effects of lightning strokes and switching actions and cannot be avoided. They endanger the electrical equipment, because, due to the economical reasons, the voltage withstanding capability of the insulation cannot be designed for all possible cases. Therefore, an economical and reliable service calls for extensive protection of the electrical equipment against unacceptable overvoltages. This applies to all power network systems. The overvoltages from lightning strokes and switching action are most dangerous threat for power electric systems. The so called “conventional surge arresters” were mostly used in power electric systems until mid 1980s in the world. They consist of a series connection of SiC resistor elements (non-linear resistors) and spark gaps and are placed in porcelain housing and are often called “conventional gapped type arresters”. Conventional gapped type arresters have a couple of disadvantages: They reduce overvoltages only when the breakdown voltage of the spark gaps is achieved. The breakdown voltage of the spark gaps depends on the steepness of the incoming voltage which results in a bad protection especially for steep overvoltage. If the outside insulation of the arrester is polluted, the potential distribution can shift along the active part, and this can cause unwanted sparkover in the spark gaps, which in the end may destroy the arrester. Design of insulation in the power transmission system depends largely on the protective characteristics of surge arresters. As the power grids were expanding with higher transmission voltage in 1970s, the conventional gapped type arresters used before the introduction of the work could not satisfy the new requirements. The conventional gapped type arrester was sometimes failed by natural phenomena for example multi-lightning and arrester housing pollution (contamination). Electric power utility companies demanded the development of high performance surge arresters to be used for the next-generation UHV power transmission systems and also compact high-performance and high-reliability surge arresters to be used in the application for GIS (tank type arrester for gas insulated switchgear). Panasonic Corporation (Panasonic) had discovered ZnO varistor as a surge absorber for electronic devices below dozens of volts and defined its basic principle. Meidensha Corporation (MEIDEN) developed gapless surge arrester for power electric systems based on Panasonic’s patent. MOSA was the first gapless surge arrester that could meet the tough electric power systems application needs of world-wide power utilities. Consequently, conventional gapped type surge arresters were disappeared except some special applications. MOSA has contributed to improving the reliability against multi-lightning and housing pollution-derived problems. Furthermore it ignited the births of economical design for power network systems and power electric equipment. MOSA became the de facto standard and later turned to JEC , ANSI , IEC  standards. It realized the electric power systems which has the very minimum power failure in the world. What obstacles (technical, political, geographic) needed to be overcome? To apply ZnO varistors to high-voltage gapless surge arresters, MEIDEN had the various issues/challenges to be overcome as shown below: 1. Improvement of voltage-current characteristic of ZnO element and energy absorbing capability. (This was solved by finding the best balance of main ZnO component and several additives.) 2. Preventing flashover outside by steep high current lightning. (This was solved by coating the ZnO element side with a ceramic insulator.) 3. Making sure that the life of the ZnO element when continuous voltage is applied to it over a long period of time. (This was solved by establishing a life estimation method and supporting field tests.) 4. Establishment of mass-production technology of ZnO elements for the power systems use. (This was solved by unique production system of ZnO elements which are mixed, granulated, formed, sintered into a complete block with electrodes on the both surfaces.) 5. Contribution to establishing the application standardization of MOSA for power systems. (MEIDEN assisted and helped harmonization process by presenting the various papers (introducing the experiences from the actual MOSA production) at WG37.04, a sub division of IEC TC37 Technical Committee.) For details, see - of `Significant References Column` below. What features set this work apart from similar achievements? Conventional surge arresters for electric power systems were composed of combination of non-linear resistor element using silicon carbide ( SiC ) crystals and series gaps. As a result, they had the following disadvantages; a) They couldn’t have high reliability against the housing pollution. This causes failure of arrester derived from two different components (gap part and SiC element) in same housing and couldn’t maintain stability for multiple lightning. b) They couldn’t satisfy the social ( user’s ) requirements for high-performance, high reliability and compactness of arresters both for GIS ( Gas Insulated Switchgear / Substation ), and for Ultra High Voltage (UHV) transmission systems. Overcoming obstacles cited above, MEIDEN developed gapless surge arrester to solve the above issues of conventional model: a) and b). MEIDEN commercialized MOSA in 1975 and the first supply was to 66kV Hayato Substation in Kyushu Area, Japan and completed the MOSA product series for 3kV to 500 kV electric power systems during 1977-1978. MOSA became the preferred choice and de facto major arresters in the world in a few years. Supporting texts and citations to establish the dates, location, and importance of the achievement. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Minimum of five (5), but as many as needed to support the milestone, such as patents, contemporary newspaper articles, journal articles, or chapters in scholarly books. At least one of the references must be from a scholarly book or journal article. 'Scholarly' is defined as peer-reviewed, with references, and published. The full reference, in English, must be uploaded, not just the citation. See below section for details on uploading material to the website. All supporting materials must be in English, or accompanied by an English translation.  JEC 217-1984 (Japanese Electrotechnical Committee Standard in English)  IEEE/ANSI C62.22-1987  IEC 60099-4-1991  T. Nishikori, T. Masuyama, M. Matsuoka, S. Hieda, M. Kobayashi and M. Mizuno: “Zinc Oxide-based Gapless Surge Arrester for Electric Power Systems”, Paper for National Convention The Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan (IEEJ), No. 777, 1973  M. Kobayashi, M. Mizuno, M. Matsuoka and M. Tanaka: “Gapless Surge Arrester for Electric Power Systems”, Paper for Research Conference , IEEJ, PD-74-12（1974）  M. Kobayashi, M. Mizuno, T. Aizawa, M. Hayashi and K.Mitani: “Development of Zinc-Oxide Non-Linear Resistors and Their Applications to Gapless Surge Arresters”, IEEE PAS, Summer Meeting, F77, 682-8 (1977), IEEE, Transactions, vol. Pas-97, No.4 (1978)  M. Hayashi and M. Kobayashi : “Developing the First Gapless Metal Oxide(ZnO) Surge Arrester(MOSA) in the World “, IEEJ, Trans. PE, Vol. 128 No.3 (2008)  K. Mitani: “Journal: Birth of Gapless Surge Arrester for Electric Power Systems”, Serial Articles of power industry newspaper “Denki Shimbun”, from Nov. 30, 1978 to Jan. 21, 1979 (6)  Misao Kobayashi and Masao Hayashi: ”The background and history of developing Gapless Metal Oxide Surge Arrester (MOSA)”, Papers of Research Conference, History of Electrical Engineering (HEE), IEEJ, HEE8-19 and HEE10-002  United States Patent 4,031,498 NON-LINEAR VOLTAGE-DEPENDENT RESISTOR Supporting materials (supported formats: GIF, JPEG, PNG, PDF, DOC) which can be made publicly available on the IEEE History Center’s website (i.e. unencumbered by copyright, or with the copyright holder’s permission). All supporting materials must be in English, or if not in English, accompanied by an English translation. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Images and photographs are especially appreciated, however, it is necessary that you list the copyright owner for these and obtain the copyright owner’s permission to reuse. For documents that are copyright-encumbered, or which you do not have rights to post, email the documents themselves to firstname.lastname@example.org. Please see the Milestone Program Guidelines for more information. To add attachments, first upload the file and add by adding the text: [[Media:(filename)]] For example, if the file you uploaded was named "Milestone Reference.pdf", include the text: [[Media:Milestone Reference.pdf]] in the appropriate field.  Picture of MOSA for 66KV system used in Japanese electric company in 1975  Picture of MOSA for 500kV GIS used in Japanese electric company in 1979  Picture of MOSA for 500kV system used in Canadian electric company in 1979 Please email a jpeg or PDF a letter in English, or with English translation, from the site owner(s) giving permission to place IEEE milestone plaque on the property, and a letter (or forwarded email) from the appropriate Section Chair supporting the Milestone application to email@example.com with the subject line "Attention: Milestone Administrator." Note that there are multiple texts of the letter depending on whether an IEEE organizational unit other than the section will be paying for the plaque(s). Submit this proposal to the IEEE History Committee for review. 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