Milestone-Proposal:Emergency Warning Code Signal Broadcasting System
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This Proposal has been approved, and is now a Milestone
To the proposer’s knowledge, is this achievement subject to litigation?
Is the achievement you are proposing more than 25 years old? Yes
Is the achievement you are proposing within IEEE’s designated fields as defined by IEEE Bylaw I-104.11, namely: Engineering, Computer Sciences and Information Technology, Physical Sciences, Biological and Medical Sciences, Mathematics, Technical Communications, Education, Management, and Law and Policy. Yes
Did the achievement provide a meaningful benefit for humanity? Yes
Was it of at least regional importance? Yes
Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to pay for the milestone plaque(s)? Yes
Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to arrange the dedication ceremony? Yes
Has the IEEE Section in which the milestone is located agreed to take responsibility for the plaque after it is dedicated? Yes
Has the owner of the site agreed to have it designated as an IEEE Milestone? Yes
Year or range of years in which the achievement occurred:
Title of the proposed milestone:
Emergency Warning Code Signal Broadcasting System, 1985
Plaque citation summarizing the achievement and its significance:
NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation) began broadcasting emergency warning code signals in 1985. The system transmitted code signals that formed a special pattern within the AM and FM radio audio frequency bandwidth, and provided reliable and prompt transmission of emergency warning information to the public. During the course of digital TV standardization, the warning codes were integrated in the technical specifications of satellite and terrestrial digital television broadcasting systems.
In what IEEE section(s) does it reside?
IEEE Tokyo Section
IEEE Organizational Unit(s) which have agreed to sponsor the Milestone:
IEEE Organizational Unit(s) paying for milestone plaque(s):
Unit: IEEE Tokyo Section Treasurer
Senior Officer Name: Seishi Takamura
IEEE Organizational Unit(s) arranging the dedication ceremony:
Unit: IEEE Tokyo Section Secretary
Senior Officer Name: Isamu Chiba
IEEE section(s) monitoring the plaque(s):
IEEE Section: IEEE Tokyo Section Chair
IEEE Section Chair name: Toshitaka Tsuda
Proposer name: Dr. Toru Kuroda, Director of NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation) Science & Technology Research Laboratories.
Proposer email: Proposer's email masked to public
Please note: your email address and contact information will be masked on the website for privacy reasons. Only IEEE History Center Staff will be able to view the email address.
Street address(es) and GPS coordinates of the intended milestone plaque site(s):
1-10-11 Kinuta，Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8510 Japan
Describe briefly the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s). The intended site(s) must have a direct connection with the achievement (e.g. where developed, invented, tested, demonstrated, installed, or operated, etc.). A museum where a device or example of the technology is displayed, or the university where the inventor studied, are not, in themselves, sufficient connection for a milestone plaque.
Please give the address(es) of the plaque site(s) (GPS coordinates if you have them). Also please give the details of the mounting, i.e. on the outside of the building, in the ground floor entrance hall, on a plinth on the grounds, etc. If visitors to the plaque site will need to go through security, or make an appointment, please give the contact information visitors will need. The intended site of the milestone plaque is NHK Science and Technology Research Laboratories (STRL). 1-10-11 Kinuta, Setagaya, Tokyo, 157-8510, Japan
Are the original buildings extant?
No, the present building was built on the same location as the old labs.
Details of the plaque mounting:
The new milestone plaque will be installed next to the “First Direct Broadcast Satellite Service” plaque awarded in 2011, which is located outside the building of NHK Science and Technology Research Laboratories, but within the laboratories lot at the entrance space. Every visitor to the laboratories will be able to see the milestones plaques.
How is the site protected/secured, and in what ways is it accessible to the public?
The plaque will be permanently embedded in a block of marble placed near the entrance of the building of the laboratories. The NHK STRL is guarded by security personnel at the gate of the laboratories’ property and at the entrance of the building. A security camera monitors the plaque and the entrance at all times and the gate is securely locked during the evening. The lobby is open to the public and visitors will be able to walk by the plaque which will be on open display.
Who is the present owner of the site(s)?
NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation)
What is the historical significance of the work (its technological, scientific, or social importance)?
The “Basic Plan of Protection against Disasters in a Tokai Earthquake”, based on “the Act on Special Measures against Large-scale Earthquakes” that was enacted in 1978 by the Japanese Government was proclaimed in anticipation that a large-scale earthquake would occur in the Tokai area. Part of this plan was to warn the public of earthquakes and tsunamis through television and radio. However, information on disaster prediction cannot be received if televisions or radios at homes are not turned on even if this information is promptly and properly transmitted. Therefore, it is necessary to transmit control signals for emergency warnings on broadcasting waves, which will automatically turn on home receivers when emergency earthquake or tsunami information must be promptly sent.
NHK achieved this objective by using frequency shift keying (FSK) code signals that were theoretically and rigorously selected to obtain remarkably high reliability. The Japanese Government adopted the technologies for the system of broadcasting the code signals for emergency warnings as a national technical standard. NHK began the operation of this system on September 1, 1985 following the directives of the Prime Minister, who responded to a request by the Governor of Shizuoka Prefecture in the Tokai area. NHK currently broadcasts test code signals for emergency warnings before noon on the first day of every month, to ascertain whether the receivers of code signals for emergency warnings are functioning. The historical significance of the development and operation of this system is fourfold.
2. The target of the system is not people, but machines (receivers dedicated to this system).
The first actual broadcast of the code signals occurred on March 18, 1987. This was for a tsunami warning after an earthquake had occurred in the Kyushu area. The code signals of the broadcasting system have been transmitted 22 times thus far, and have helped and saved many people’s lives. The dedicated receivers, and conventional radios and TVs with the circuits for receiving the code signals of emergency warnings installed are continuously being sold. The Fire and Disaster Management Agency, which is in charge of disaster relief, recognized the system’s importance and is actively promoting it. Furthermore, this system of broadcasting code signals for emergency warnings became well-known to the world when a M 9.1 earthquake struck and a large-scale tsunami in its aftermath occurred off Sumatra in December 2004, which caused a great deal of damage and inflicted many casualties.
The system was adopted as an International Telecommunication Union (ITU) recommendation in 2007 , and was published in the Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union (ABU) technical handbook in 2008 .
In this digital era, the EWBS standardization activity for digital terrestrial television is also promoted. In order to harmonize the implementation processes among countries adopting ISDB-T, the “ISDB-T International Forum” was organized. As of 2013, there are 13 countries participating: Argentina, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Costa Rica, Chile, Ecuador, Paraguay, the Philippines, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela and Japan. The document for EWBS implementation is published and widely accepted .
What obstacles (technical, political, geographic) needed to be overcome?
The system for broadcasting code signals for emergency warnings must activate dedicated receivers to turn on conventional radios and TVs to ensure that people promptly listen to and watch programs on emergency broadcasts even if reception is poor or they experience severe conditions. As the warning control code signals are transmitted through broadcasting paths, program sound and noise interferes with the dedicated receivers. Thus, the system must meet four requirements:
The start and end signals are basically composed of fixed codes and classification codes which are 16 bit code words. Fixed code is the most important in the early warning broadcasting system (EWBS) control signal. The classification code carries additional information such as area and time classifications. The basic unit is 96-bit length, which consists of three fixed codes, i.e., the area classification, the month-date classification, and the year-time classification codes.
Furthermore, each fixed code is accompanied by a kind of specified classification code, which takes 1.5 s. The start signal usually repeats the 96-bit length unit ten times to ensure reliable reception. The end signal usually repeats the 96-bit length unit and 92-bit length of the no-signal period four times.
What features set this work apart from similar achievements?
There are various methods of multiplexing the control signals with radio and television sound.
Supporting texts and citations to establish the dates, location, and importance of the achievement: Minimum of five (5), but as many as needed to support the milestone, such as patents, contemporary newspaper articles, journal articles, or chapters in scholarly books. 'Scholarly' is defined as peer-reviewed, with references, and published. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. At least one of the references must be from a scholarly book or journal article. All supporting materials must be in English, or accompanied by an English translation.
1.Seiichi Namba, “A New Approach to the Design of Receiver Control Code for Broadcasting System － An application to the regional code of emergency broadcasting system－”, The Technical Report, The Institute of Television Engineers, May 27, 1982 (See Attached file).
4. Kazuyoshi Shogen, Yasuhiro Ito, Hiroyuki Hamazumi and Makoto Taguchi，“Implementation of Emergency Warning Broadcasting System in the Asia Pacific Region”, ITU/ESCAP Disaster Communications Workshop, 12 – 15 December 2006, Bangkok, Thailand http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/emergencytelecoms/events/ThailandWorkshop/final1/Session%209/SESSION%209%20[NHK]%20Dr%20Kazuyoshi%20SHOGEN.pdf
5. RECOMMENDATION ITU-R BT.1774-1, “Use of satellite and terrestrial broadcast infrastructures for public warning, disaster mitigation and relief”, 04/2007 http://www.itu.int/dms_pubrec/itu-r/rec/bt/R-REC-BT.1774-1-200704-I!!PDF-E.pdf
6. HANDBOOK ON EWBS (-Emergency Warning Broadcasting System-), Technical Committee, Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union, 2008 http://www.abu.org.my/upload/EWBS_Handbook.pdf
7. ISDB-T harmonization document, part 3: Emergency Warning Broadcast System, 2013 http://www.dibeg.org/techp/aribstd/international_harmonization/130528_EWBS_harmonization_approved.pdf
8. Jyunichi Ishida, et al. "BROADCAST AND NEW MEDIA", pp.249-256, Maruzen Advanced Technology,1992, (See Attached file)
Supporting materials (supported formats: GIF, JPEG, PNG, PDF, DOC): All supporting materials must be in English, or if not in English, accompanied by an English translation. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. For documents that are copyright-encumbered, or which you do not have rights to post, email the documents themselves to email@example.com. Please see the Milestone Program Guidelines for more information.
-2- NHK Laboratories, Note No. 268, January 1982.pdf
-8- BROADCAST AND NEW MEDIA（EWBS)_English.pdf
Please email a jpeg or PDF a letter in English, or with English translation, from the site owner(s) giving permission to place IEEE milestone plaque on the property, and a letter (or forwarded email) from the appropriate Section Chair supporting the Milestone application to firstname.lastname@example.org with the subject line "Attention: Milestone Administrator." Note that there are multiple texts of the letter depending on whether an IEEE organizational unit other than the section will be paying for the plaque(s).
-1- ITE Report RE82-13 pp33-38 English.pdf
-2- NHK Laboratories, Note No. 268, January 1982.pdf
-3- EWBS launched description.pdf
Chroological record EWBS NHK.pdf
-8- BROADCAST AND NEW MEDIA English.pdf