Edit Proposal: Milestone-Proposal:E-Assisted Bike You do not have permission to edit this page, for the following reason: You are not currently logged in. The action you have requested is limited to users in the group: Users. Please log in or create an account. Docket ID: (admins only) Thank you for proposing a technical achievement for possible recognition as an IEEE Milestone in Electrical Engineering and Computing. Your efforts help preserve the heritage of technology. Detailed information on the Milestone application process may be found at: Milestone Guidelines and How to Propose a Milestone. At least one of the proposer(s) must be an IEEE Member (including Student Member) in good standing. To the proposer’s knowledge, is this achievement subject to litigation? If the answer is "yes", the proposal cannot proceed further. Yes No You must be able to answer "yes" to all of the following questions. If the answer to any of the following questions is "no", the proposal cannot proceed further. Contact us at email@example.com if you are unable to answer "yes" to all of the following and would still like to proceed. Is the achievement you are proposing more than 25 years old? Yes No Is the achievement you are proposing within IEEE’s designated fields as defined by IEEE Bylaw I-104.11, namely: Engineering, Computer Sciences and Information Technology, Physical Sciences, Biological and Medical Sciences, Mathematics, Technical Communications, Education, Management, and Law and Policy. Yes No Did the achievement provide a meaningful benefit for humanity? Yes No Was it of at least regional importance? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to pay for the milestone plaque(s)? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to arrange the dedication ceremony? Yes No Has the IEEE Section in which the milestone is located agreed to take responsibility for the plaque after it is dedicated? Yes No Has the owner of the site given permission to place an IEEE plaque? Yes No Year or range of years in which the achievement occurred: Title of the proposed milestone. (Include date or date range in title. Example: “Alternating Current Electrification, 1886”) Please provide a plaque citation in English summarizing the achievement and its significance. Text absolutely limited by plaque dimensions to 70 words; 60 is preferable for aesthetic reasons. NOTE: The IEEE History Committee shall have final determination on the wording of the citation. Names of living persons are not normally used in citations. Exceptions to this are cases where the person's name is linked to the achievement itself (e.g. the Lempel-Ziv algorithm, Maxwell's Equations, etc.) or where the person's name is so widely recognizeable to the general public that it makes sense to use it. When used, the names should be the names of the engineers, scientists, or technologists who actually made the achievement, rather than managers or executives. For more information and suggestions about writing milestone citations, please visit Helpful Hints on Citations, Plaque Locations. The first 'electrically-assisted bike' was commercialized in 1993 by Yamaha Motor, for which pedaling was required, but the rider could derive battery-powered assistance to reduce necessary efforts. This type of vehicle varies in design detail, but assistance cuts out when the rider stops pedaling or when the speed exceeds specified thresholds. This vehicle is especially useful for people in hilly areas, since the motor provides assistance for going uphill. In what IEEE section(s) will the milestone plaque(s) reside? Please specify the IEEE Organizational Unit(s) which have agreed to sponsor the Milestone, and supply name and contact information for the senior officer from those OU(s). Sponsorship has three aspects: 1) Payment for the cost of the plaque(s), 2) Arranging the dedication ceremony, and 3) agreeing to monitor the plaque and to let IEEE History Center staff know in case the plaque needs to be moved, is no longer secure, etc. Number 3 must be done by the IEEE Section(s) in which the plaque(s) is located, but aspects 1 and 2 can be done by any IEEE Organizational Unit, and they need not be the same one. Please note: your email address and contact information will be masked on the website for privacy reasons. Only IEEE History Center Staff will be able to view the email address. IEEE Organizational Unit(s) paying for milestone plaque(s) Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE Organizational Unit(s) arranging the dedication ceremony Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE section(s) monitoring the plaque IEEE Section: IEEE Section Chair name: IEEE Section Chair e-mail: IEEE Section: IEEE Section Chair name: IEEE Section Chair e-mail: Milestone proposer(s) Proposer name: Proposer email: Proposer name: Proposer email: Street address(es) and GPS coordinates of the intended milestone plaque site(s). Please include coordinates in decimal format rather than degrees. What is the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s) relation to the achievement? The intended site(s) must have a direct connection with the achievement (e.g. where developed, invented, tested, demonstrated, installed, or operated, etc.). 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In the space below, please describe in detail: the historic significance of the achievement, its importance to the evolution of electrical and computer engineering and science, its importance to regional/national/international development, its benefits to humanity, the ways the achievement was a significant advance rather than an incremental improvement of existing technology. The material submitted here will constitute the main descriptive article on the ETHW website for readers to learn about the milestone. Space is unlimited, and detail is encouraged. Most milestones require 1000 to 1500 words of support, however there is no word limit. The article should be readable by a wide audience that includes practicing engineers, scholars of history, and the general public. Some examples of the text of good milestone articles are First Radio Astronomical Observations Using Very Long Baseline Interferometry] and G3_Facsimile International Standardization of G3 Facsimile (Do not worry about the formatting of the page, IEEE History Center Staff will do that afterwards.) What is the historical significance of the work (its technological, scientific, or social importance)? The historical significance on the ‘electrically-assisted bike’ is briefed as follows. 1. Historical Background of Commercializing ‘Electrically-Assisted Bikes’ Internationally, transport policy makers and urban planners are interested in encouraging cycling, given the potential to simultaneously achieve a number of goals, such as addressing congestion, encouraging a switch from more polluting modes and thereby reducing local air pollution and greenhouse gas emission, and increasing physical activity and thereby examining obesity and a range of other health issues. ‘Electrically-assisted bikes’ or 'pedelecs' are one tool that may help to achieve these goals . Thus, a great number of people in Japan as well as in China, EU, India, Korea, and USA have been using eagerly all sorts of ‘electrically-assisted bikes’ since the release of the first product in 1993 [2,3]. 2. Widespread Diffusion of ‘Electrically-Assisted Bikes’ The first ‘electrically-assisted bike’ released in 1993 by Yamaha Motor Co., Ltd. (Japan) was equipped with such a large low-powered motor and a bulky lead storage battery that once the battery was charged, the running distance of this vehicle managed to be extended to 20 km . The business chance of this type of vehicle grew so rapidly that several big companies rushed into this vehicle industry just after the release in 1993. In order that these vehicles might be much more widespread, each time a new model was planned every possible attempt was made to miniaturize motors, update lithium batteries, reduce vehicle weights, and extend running distances. In addition, owing to the drastic progress of electric assistance capability the running distance of each vehicle had been extended to 100 km or more by the end of 2016 , and furthermore in 2020 the COVID pandemic brought an increased need for individualized transportation, such as ‘electrically-assisted bikes’ . What obstacles (technical, political, geographic) needed to be overcome? In the early development phase, ‘electrically-assisted bikes’ encountered a number of severe obstacles, which were overcome as outlined below. 1. Obstacles to Using ‘Electric Bikes’ In the 1890s through the 1980s, a great variety of ‘electric bikes’, henceforth abbreviated to ‘e-bikes’, each with an integrated electric motor used to assist propulsion, were steadily developed and worldwide spread. A typical ‘e-bike’ was equipped with a set of fractional horsepower motors, connected through a series of gears , for which the sales price as well as the running cost was rising steeply. To cope with such growing expenses, in 1993 Yamaha Motor dared to introduce into the market a less expensive ‘e-bike’, called an ‘electrically-assisted bike’ or ‘pedelec’ [1,2,3], for which pedaling was required, but the rider could choose to switch on battery-powered assistance to reduce the effort required . 2. Restriction to Using ‘Electrically-Assisted Bikes’ Depending on local laws, many ‘e-bikes’ (e.g. ‘electrically-assisted bikes’ or 'pedelecs') are legally classified as bicycles rather than mopeds or motorcycles. This exempts them from the more stringent laws regarding the certification and operation of more powerful two-wheelers which are often classed as electric motorcycles. ‘Electrically-assisted bikes’ (or pedelecs) are much like conventional bicycles in use and function, or in other words, the electric motor only provides assistance, for example, when the rider is climbing an uphill road or struggling against a headwind. Thus, these vehicles are especially useful for people in hilly areas where riding a bicycle would prove too strenuous for many to consider taking up cycling as a daily means of transport. They are also useful specifically for those riders who more generally need some assistance, e.g. for people with heart, leg muscle, or knee joint issues . What features set this work apart from similar achievements? The ‘electrically-assisted bikes’ have distinctive features as outlined below. 1. Sensors necessary for ‘Electrically-Assisted Bikes’ For the ‘electrically-assisted bike’ to work, pedaling is required, but the rider can derive battery-powered assistance to reduce necessary efforts, as already stated. To drive this vehicle, two different sensors are necessary; one is a speed sensor, and the other a torque sensor. The former is used for measuring the pedaling speed, and the latter for calculating the pedaling force . By making the best use of these sensors, given a vehicle, both of the rider's pedaling speed and pedaling force are systematically controlled. 2. Batteries Used for ‘Electrically-Assisted Bikes’ The original ‘electrically-assisted bike’ released in 1993 used a bulky lead storage battery, whereas the newer models have been adopting rechargeable batteries, such as sealed lead-acid (SLA), nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd), nickel-metal hybrid (Ni-MH), and lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, which offer lighter, denser capacity batteries [2,3]. These batteries vary according to the voltage, total charge capacity, weight, the number of charging cycles before performance degrades, and ability to handle over-voltage charging conditions. The energy costs of operating these e-bikes are small, but there can be considerable battery replacement costs. The lifespan of a battery pack varies depending on the type of usage. Shallow discharge/recharge cycles will help extend the overall battery life . 3. Diffusion of ‘Pedelecs’ and ‘S-Pedelecs’ As for the ‘electrically-assisted bike’ or ‘pedelec’, the pedal-assist cuts out once 25 km/h is reached, and the motor produces maximum continuous rated power of not greater than 250 watts. Owing to the realization of such ‘pedelecs’, more powerful e-bikes, called ‘S-pedelecs’ can be successfully commercialized, each of which is equipped with a motor more powerful than 250 watts and less limited pedal-assist, i.e. the motor does not stop assisting the rider even if 25 km/h has been reached  . These ‘S-pedelecs’ are legally classified as mopeds or motorcycles rather than bicycles and therefore may need to be registered and insured, for which the rider may have to carry some sort of driver’s license (either car or motorcycle). It should be added here that in USA many States have adopted ‘S-pedelecs’ into the ‘Class 3 category’, where e-bikes are limited not only to 750 watts or less of power but also to 45 km/h or less of speed . Supporting texts and citations to establish the dates, location, and importance of the achievement. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Minimum of five (5), but as many as needed to support the milestone, such as patents, contemporary newspaper articles, journal articles, or chapters in scholarly books. At least one of the references must be from a scholarly book or journal article. 'Scholarly' is defined as peer-reviewed, with references, and published. The full reference, in English, must be uploaded, not just the citation. See below section for details on uploading material to the website. All supporting materials must be in English, or accompanied by an English translation.  S. Cairns, E. Behrendt, D. Raffo, C. Beaumont, C. Kiefer, “Electrically-assisted bikes: Potential impacts on travel behaviour”, Transportation Research Part A Policy and Practice, pp. 327-342, 103, Sept. 2017. <br>  ‘Electric bicycle’; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Felctric_bicycle. <br>  ‘Electrically-assisted bikes’; https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/電動アシスト自転車 (in Japanese). <br>  ‘Yamaha・PAS’; https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/ヤマハ・PAS (in Japanese). <br>  ‘Best 5 Electric Pedal Assist Bike/Bicycles in 2021 Reviews’; http://bestratedelectricbikes.com/electric-assist-bike/ <br> Appendix References  and  are written in Japanese, for which English abstracts are provided for reference in what follows. (1) Reference : This article outlines ‘electrically-assisted bikes’ released by Yamaha Motor as well as by other providers. Concretely, the contents are concerned with the following items: <br> (i) Outline, (ii) Product Structure, (iii) Electrically-Assisted Bikes in Several Countries; Japan, China, Korea, and EU, (iv) e-BIKE, (v) Electrically-Assisted Bikes and Sightseeing, (vi) Remarks, (vii) Main Makers in Japan, (viii) Footnotes, (ix) References. <br> (2) Reference : This article surveys the product of ‘Yamaha・PAS’, which is the first ‘electrically-assisted bike’ developed in 1993 by Yamaha Motor in Japan. The contents include the product name, a short history of production, an overview of the product, and references. Supporting materials (supported formats: GIF, JPEG, PNG, PDF, DOC) which can be made publicly available on the IEEE History Center’s website (i.e. unencumbered by copyright, or with the copyright holder’s permission). All supporting materials must be in English, or if not in English, accompanied by an English translation. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Images and photographs are especially appreciated, however, it is necessary that you list the copyright owner for these and obtain the copyright owner’s permission to reuse. For documents that are copyright-encumbered, or which you do not have rights to post, email the documents themselves to firstname.lastname@example.org. Please see the Milestone Program Guidelines for more information. To add attachments, first upload the file and add by adding the text: [[Media:(filename)]] For example, if the file you uploaded was named "Milestone Reference.pdf", include the text: [[Media:Milestone Reference.pdf]] in the appropriate field. Please email a jpeg or PDF a letter in English, or with English translation, from the site owner(s) giving permission to place IEEE milestone plaque on the property, and a letter (or forwarded email) from the appropriate Section Chair supporting the Milestone application to email@example.com with the subject line "Attention: Milestone Administrator." Note that there are multiple texts of the letter depending on whether an IEEE organizational unit other than the section will be paying for the plaque(s). Submit this proposal to the IEEE History Committee for review. Only check this when the proposal is finished Summary: This is a minor edit Watch this page Cancel Retrieved from "http://ieeemilestones.ethw.org/Milestone-Proposal:E-Assisted_Bike"