Milestone-Proposal talk:Inverter-driven residential air conditioner 1981

Advocates and reviewers will post their comments below. In addition, any IEEE member can sign in with their ETHW login (different from IEEE Single Sign On) and comment on the milestone proposal's accuracy or completeness as a form of public review.

It is a really groundbreaking innovation in air-conditioner development history. The inverter air conditioner is nowadays widely used throughout the world and become the global standard of air conditioners. It has a big impact. -- Xdh (talk) 04:13, 12 June 2020 (UTC)

I am glad to be a reviewer for the proposal to milestone-proposal titled on Inverter driven residential air conditioner 1981. It is a really groundbreaking innovation in air-conditioner development history. The inverter air conditioner is nowadays widely used throughout the world and become the global standard of air conditioners. It is a great impact on both energy efficiency and environmental protection. Firstly the Plaque Citation is accurate to represent the novelty of the invention. Toshiba is firstly to embed the inverter into the air-conditioner by miniaturizing the inverter size. Secondarily the milestone well supported by the documents. One of the important pieces of evidence is paper titled on " Capacity Control with Frequency Modulation System", Japanese Association of Refrigeration in 1981. It reported the progress on inverter modulation controller the air-conditioners by Tokyo Shibaura Electric Co., Ltd. Toshiba commercialized the inverter-driven residential air-conditioner in 1980. It can be found in the Toshiba Science Museum. The contribution has been recognized in Japan with the Ichimura Prize in Industry in 1984 and Award of the Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan in 2008. To solve the energy-inefficient problem of on-off control of the conventional air-conditioner. Toshiba leverage power transistor and microprocessor and sinusoidal pulse width modulation control and achieved a significant downsizing in its inverters. A downsizing inverter is critical to residential products. The energy efficiency of the inverter residential air conditioners reached a 40% improvement to the conventional fixed-speed ones. On technically, they solved the power circuit design and microprocessor PWM control issue. Besides, there are challenges of the mechanical issues due to the transition from the fixed speed to variable speed. Toshiba finally successfully overcome these obstacles with their technical expertise and obtain downsizing and lower costs inverter-driven residential air conditioners in 1981.

Re: It is a really groundbreaking innovation in air-conditioner development history. The inverter air conditioner is nowadays widely used throughout the world and become the global standard of air conditioners. It has a big impact. -- John Vardalas (talk) 16:46, 23 July 2020 (UTC)

Is it possible to have more information as to the identity of the reviewer?

Revision by Hirofumi Akagi -- E.tejera (talk) 20:11, 12 June 2020 (UTC)

May 27, 2020 Dear Dr. Enrique Tejera, IEEE History Committee

RE: Review result of the IEEE Milestone proposal entitled "Inverter-driven residential air conditioner 1981"

Dear To whom it may concern lam willing to review the IEEE Milestone proposal entitled "Inverter-driven residential air conditioner 1981." First of all, let me introduce myself. I am, Professor, currently Distinguished Professor at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan. I got my Ph. D. degree in power electronics from the Tokyo Institute of Technology in 1979. Since then, I have been conducting education and research on power electronics, motor drives, and their applications to indust印, transportation, and utilities. I have published some 140 IEEE Journal/Transactions papers, as well as three invited papers in Proceedings of the IEEE I was elected as an IEEE Fellow in 1996, and then an IEEE Life Fellow in 2020 I have received six IEEE Transactions Prize Paper Awards and 16 IEEE Industry Applications Society Committee Prize Paper Awards. I was a recipient of the IEEE William E. Newell Power Electronics Award in 2001, the IEEE Industry Applications Society Outstanding Achievement Award in 2004, the IEEE Richard H. Kaufmann Award 2008, the IEEE Power & Energy Society Nan Higorani Custom Power Award in 2012, and the IEEE Medal in Power Engineering in 2018 I served as the President of the IEEE Power Electronics Society from 2007 to 2008 for two years and the IEEE Division II Director from 2015 to 2016 for two yeas Since I have been involved in research on power electronics and motor drives in 1974, as a graduate student at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, I have known well the processes of the research and development, following the commercialization of inverter-driven residential air conditioners in Japan. Firstly, I will answer the following questions in line 1) Is the suggested wording of the Plaque Citation accurate? Yes, it is accurate. However, it would be much better if the term "conditioner" would eb replaced with "conditioners." 2) Is the evidence presented in the proposal of sufficient substance and accuracy to support the Citation? Yes, it is. No additional evidence is required 3) Does the proposed milestone represent a significant technical achievement? Yes, it does Toshiba put their residential split inverter-driven air conditioners on the market on December 2, 1981. Two years later, Hitachi followed Toshiba in terms of commercialization of residential split inverter-driven air conditioners in 1983. However, Hitachi replaced induction motors with permanent-magnet synchronous motors with ferrite magnets. As a result, the Japanese market of residential split inverter-driven air conditioners have been expanding leaps and bound, accompanied by price reduction and technical improvement. This is a good example that an appropriate competition among manufacturers are mandatory to market expansion In conclusion, I strongly recommend the proposal entitled "Inverter-driven residential air conditioner 1981" to be awarded the prestigious IEEE Milestone in 2020 Please let me know if you have any question on this matter M 子一刃kグ請、末泰文 Hirofumi Akagi, IEEE Life Fellow Distinguished Professor Tokyo Institute of Technology Phone/Fax: 81-45-924-5623 E-mail: akagi@ee.titech.ac.jp

Re: Revision by Hirofumi Akagi -- Shingo Naito (talk) 00:28, 24 June 2020 (UTC)

Replace this text with your reply

Mr. Enrique Tejera, we would like to express once again a sincere gratitude for your support as Advocate during our Milestone process. Professors Xu and Akagi, we are very much honored to have you as reviewers and are grateful for your strong support on our submittal.

We studied internally Professor Akagi’s comment “it would be much better if the term "conditioner" would be replaced with "conditioners," and revised the title of the proposed milestone as follows: Inverter Air Conditioners, 1980-81

The expression of “Split Type” is dropped in the revised title to avoid redundancy and awkwardness, as the feature of the “Split” is included in the plaque citation text.

In addition, we checked our plaque citation text and confirmed that the term “conditioner” in our original submittal is used in the plural form, as suggested by Professor Akagi.

Toshiba developed and mass-produced the world first inverter split air conditioners for commercial and residential applications in 1980 and 1981, respectively. Downsized and robust inverters using power electronics technologies allowed variable-speed control of the compressor for optimized air-conditioning operations with significantly improved comfort and energy efficiency, and as a result led to a widespread use of inverter air conditioners across the world.

Also, please be noted that the title of this Milestone Proposal is NOT “Inverter-driven residential air conditioner 1981” as shown on the top of this thread, BUT “Inverter Air Conditioners, 1980-81”, as it has been changed it from the original entry before having completed the submittal. We apologize for causing confusion.

My support of this proposal -- John Vardalas (talk) 16:42, 23 July 2020 (UTC)

This proposal is well written and the external reviews are strong. I support this proposal. I do wonder if the body of the proposal can make the phrase "as a result led to a widespread use of inverter air conditioners across the world" in the citation more concrete. Does it mean that all the world's air conditioners are now inverter-driven? If not, then is there a reasonable estimate of the percentage that are inverter-driven?

Re: My support of this proposal -- Shingo Naito (talk) 01:34, 3 August 2020 (UTC)

Dr. John Vardalas, we appreciate your support for our proposal. We are sorry for this late reply as in Japan we had a long weekend due to national holidays.

In response to your question, the inverter AC percentage of the entire world is estimated roughly at about 59% in 2018, based on the attached data provided by the Japan Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Industry Association (JRAIA).

https://www.jraia.or.jp/english/World_AC_Demand.pdf

On a regional basis,

- 100% in Japan; 82% in Europe; 13% in North America; 74% in China; 40% in Asia (not including Japan and China); 20% in Middle East; 100% in Oceania

- North America’s percentage is notably low compared to other regions because the inverter split AC technology is relatively new in a long AC history of North America; however, the segment growth of inverter split ACs such as residential ductless split and variable refrigerant flow systems (VRF) have been recently growing faster than the entire AC market in North America, as also shown in the above JRAIA’s material and in fact almost all U.S. based major AC manufacturers have added residential ductless split AC and VRF to their product portfolio.

- In addition, countries in Asia and the Middle East, where the inverter AC percentage is relatively low, are also tightening their energy regulations mandating higher energy efficiency for air conditioning equipment; therefore the inverter AC percentage is growing and is expected to continue the growth in such countries. (Please see the following link for an article on an example of initiatives in India to promote inverter ACs.)

https://www.coolingindia.in/benefits-of-using-inverter-compressors/

Re: Re: My support of this proposal -- John Vardalas (talk) 22:50, 3 August 2020 (UTC)

Thank you for a most informative reply. If you haven't already, could you incorporate this information into the body of the proposal? It will enhance the general public's understanding of this Milestone.

Re: Re: Re: My support of this proposal -- Shingo Naito (talk) 11:45, 4 August 2020 (UTC)

Dr. John Vardalas,

Thank you very much for your comment once again.

In accordance with your recommendation, we have incorporated our comment into the proposal by revising the seventh paragraph of the historical significance section as follows:

  • Before Revision

The inverter air conditioner, whose origin is Japan, is nowadays widely used throughout the world and is considered to have become the global standard of air conditioners. In particular, from a viewpoint of tackling global environment issues and mitigating climate changes, many countries in the world including emerging countries are tightening their regulations on energy label and are shifting from conventional non-inverter fixed-speed air conditioners to inverter variable-speed air conditioners [7]. In addition, the inverter air conditioner is generally considered to bring better comfort to the humanity compared to the fix-speed air conditioner and as a result is contributing to improved human health, economy and daily lives. [9 ; p.40]

  • After Revision

The inverter air conditioner, whose origin is Japan, is nowadays widely used throughout the world and is considered to have become the global standard of air conditioners. In 2018, countries and regions such as Japan, China, Europe, and Oceania saw a high inverter air conditioner ratio at 100%, 74%, 82%, and 100%, respectively. The inverter ratio in North America was notably low at 13%, because the inverter split air conditioning technology is relatively new in a long air conditioning history of North America; however, the inverter split air conditioner segment including residential ductless split air conditioners and variable refrigerant flow systems (VRF) has been recently growing faster than the entire heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) market in North America, and almost all U.S. based major HVAC manufacturers have added residential ductless split air conditioners and VRF to their product portfolio. The inverter ratio in regions such as the Middle East and Asia except for Japan and China are relatively low at 20% and 40%, respectively. However, as a part of efforts to tackle global environment issues and mitigating climate changes, many countries in the world including emerging countries are tightening their regulations on energy label and are shifting from conventional non-inverter fixed-speed air conditioners to inverter variable-speed air conditioners [7]. In addition, the inverter air conditioner is generally considered to bring better comfort to the humanity compared to the fix-speed air conditioner and as a result is contributing to improved human health, economy, and daily lives. [9 ; p.40]

In addition to the above changes, we have made some minor corrections in Reference Material #7, relevant to the above revision, as follows:

(i)We found that some inverter ratio figures on Page 1 of the previous version included some errant figures so we deleted it and instead we have included the relevant figures in the body of the proposal, and

(ii)In the last Page of Reference Material #7, we had a table of inverter ratio data in 2017; we have replaced it with data in 2018.

We hope these changes have addressed your comments.

Thank you very much.

minor typo in citation -- Amy Bix (talk) 19:41, 23 July 2020 (UTC)

Minor typo in line 1 of citation - should be "world's first"

The word "downsized" starting sentence two also threw me a bit upon reading - bit awkward and unclear. Maybe substitute "compact" for "downsized"?

Re: minor typo in citation -- Jason.k.hui (talk) 14:05, 2 August 2020 (UTC)

Perhaps break up the second sentence into two shorter sentences.

Reviewer Bio as requested -- E.tejera (talk) 16:26, 3 August 2020 (UTC)

As requested by the Proposed based on JVardalas comments, I am attaching Professor Dehong Xu bio as follows:

Prof. Mark Dehong Xu bios.

Prof. Xu is professor and director of Power Electronics Institute of Zhejiang University, China. He used to head of department of Electrical Engineering and Vice Dean of Faculty of Engineering of Zhejiang University. Since 1996, he has been with the College of Electrical Engineering, Zhejiang University, China, as a Full Professor. He was a Visiting Scholar in the University of Tokyo, Japan, from June 1995 to May 1996. From June to December 2000, he was a Visiting Professor in CPES of Virginia Tech, USA. From February 2006 to April 2006, he was a Visiting Professor in ETH, Switzerland.

His current research interests include power electronics topology and control, power conversion for energy efficiency and renewable energy, power supply for Datacenter etc. He has authored eight books and more than 200 IEEE journal or conference papers. He owns more than 50 patents. He is the IEEE Power Electronics Society Distinguish Lecturer in 2015- 2018. In 2016, he received IEEE Power Electronics Society R. D. Middlebrook Achievement Award. He is IEEE Fellow in 2013.

He is an At-Large Adcom Member of the IEEE Power Electronics Society from 2020. He is CoEditor in Chief of IEEE Open Journal of Power Electronics, an Associate Editor of the IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics etc. He is general chairs of IEEE international conferences such as IEEE ISIE2012, IEEE PEDG2012, IEEE PEAC2018 etc. Now he is president of China Power Supply Society.

Revision of Title and Citation -- E.tejera (talk) 17:51, 3 August 2020 (UTC)

Based on expressed comments and recommendations here is a revised citation and title for the Milestone. Please comment.

Includes:

1. Change the title from: “Inverter-driven residential air conditioners, 1981” to “Inverter air conditioners, 1980-1981” 2. Correct on first line: “world first” with “world’s first” 3. Replace on line three: “Downsized” with “Compact” 4. Split last sentence in two, last part: As a result, it led to a ….

New ones:

Inverter air conditioners, 1980-81

Toshiba developed and mass-produced the world’s first inverter split air conditioners for commercial and residential applications in 1980 and 1981, respectively. Compact and robust inverters using power electronics technologies allowed variable-speed control of the compressor for optimized air-conditioning operations with significantly improved comfort and energy efficiency. As a result, it led to a widespread use of inverter air conditioners across the world.

Re: Revision of Title and Citation -- Amy Bix (talk) 18:30, 4 August 2020 (UTC)

could I recommend adding a comma after the word "operations," to make sentence 2 read:

Compact and robust inverters using power electronics technologies allowed variable-speed control of the compressor for optimized air-conditioning operations, with significantly improved comfort and energy efficiency.

and I think sentence 3 could be tightened up - could I recommend:

These innovations led to a widespread use of inverter air conditioners across the world.

or

These advances fostered widespread use of inverter air conditioners worldwide.

Re: Re: Revision of Title and Citation -- Shingo Naito (talk) 01:46, 5 August 2020 (UTC)

Mr. Tejera, Prof. Bix, and Dr. Hui,

We appreciate all of your valuable comments. The recommendations by Prof. Bix looks perfect, so we gladly accept it and have revised the citation accordingly as follows.

Toshiba developed and mass-produced the world’s first inverter split air conditioners for commercial and residential applications in 1980 and 1981, respectively. Compact and robust inverters using power electronics technologies allowed variable-speed control of the compressor for optimized air-conditioning operations, with significantly improved comfort and energy efficiency. These innovations led to a widespread use of inverter air conditioners across the world.

Thank you very much.

first phrase of the citation -- Juan Carlos (talk) 12:57, 5 August 2020 (UTC)

"first inverter split air conditioners" doesn't sound well. there are two qualifications: inverter-driven and split-type How about something like "split-type air conditioners with inverter-driven compressors" the word bugdet allows to express the concept better.

Re: first phrase of the citation -- Shingo Naito (talk) 05:05, 6 August 2020 (UTC)

Mr. Juan Carlos, thank you very much for your valuable comment. We have incorporated your recommendation into our citation as follows:

Toshiba developed and mass-produced the world’s first split-type air conditioners with inverter-driven compressors for commercial and residential applications in 1980 and 1981, respectively. Compact and robust inverters using power electronics technologies allowed variable-speed control of the compressors for optimized air-conditioning operations, with significantly improved comfort and energy efficiency. These innovations led to a widespread use of inverter air conditioners across the world.