Milestone-Proposal:Czochralski


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Docket #:2017-01

This proposal has been submitted for review.


To the proposer’s knowledge, is this achievement subject to litigation? No

Is the achievement you are proposing more than 25 years old? Yes

Is the achievement you are proposing within IEEE’s designated fields as defined by IEEE Bylaw I-104.11, namely: Engineering, Computer Sciences and Information Technology, Physical Sciences, Biological and Medical Sciences, Mathematics, Technical Communications, Education, Management, and Law and Policy. Yes

Did the achievement provide a meaningful benefit for humanity? Yes

Was it of at least regional importance? Yes

Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to pay for the milestone plaque(s)? Yes

Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to arrange the dedication ceremony? Yes

Has the IEEE Section in which the milestone is located agreed to take responsibility for the plaque after it is dedicated? Yes

Has the owner of the site agreed to have it designated as an IEEE Milestone? Yes


Year or range of years in which the achievement occurred:

1916-18

Title of the proposed milestone:

Czochralski Method of Crystal Growth, 1916

Plaque citation summarizing the achievement and its significance:

In 1916, Jan Czochralski invented a method of crystal growth used to obtain single crystals of semiconductors, metals, salts and synthetic gemstones during his work at AEG in Berlin, Germany. He developed the process further at the Warsaw University of Technology, Poland. The Czochralski process enabled development of electronic semiconductor devices and modern electronics.

In what IEEE section(s) does it reside?

Poland; Federal Republic of Germany

IEEE Organizational Unit(s) which have agreed to sponsor the Milestone:

IEEE Organizational Unit(s) paying for milestone plaque(s):

Unit: Poland Section
Senior Officer Name: Senior officer name masked to public

Unit: Germany Section
Senior Officer Name: Senior officer name masked to public

IEEE Organizational Unit(s) arranging the dedication ceremony:

Unit: Poland Section
Senior Officer Name: Senior officer name masked to public

Unit: Germany Section
Senior Officer Name: Senior officer name masked to public

IEEE section(s) monitoring the plaque(s):

IEEE Section: Poland Section
IEEE Section Chair name: Section chair name masked to public

IEEE Section: Germany Section
IEEE Section Chair name: Section chair name masked to public

Milestone proposer(s):

Proposer name: Proposer's name masked to public
Proposer email: Proposer's email masked to public

Proposer name: Proposer's name masked to public
Proposer email: Proposer's email masked to public

Proposer name: Proposer's name masked to public
Proposer email: Proposer's email masked to public

Proposer name: Proposer's name masked to public
Proposer email: Proposer's email masked to public

Proposer name: Proposer's name masked to public
Proposer email: Proposer's email masked to public

Proposer name: Proposer's name masked to public
Proposer email: Proposer's email masked to public

Proposer name: Proposer's name masked to public
Proposer email: Proposer's email masked to public

Please note: your email address and contact information will be masked on the website for privacy reasons. Only IEEE History Center Staff will be able to view the email address.

Street address(es) and GPS coordinates of the intended milestone plaque site(s):

1) Pl. Politechniki 1, 00-665 Warszawa (Warsaw), Poland; GPS - 52.220527 (latitude), 21.010357 (longitude)

and

2) Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft Berlin, Treskowallee 8, 10318 Berlin, Germany GPS (latitude, longitude) 52.493235, 13.525455

and

3) Main Square (in the center), Kcynia (small city with some 4500 inhibitants), Poland (the plaque will be in Polish language only)

Describe briefly the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s). The intended site(s) must have a direct connection with the achievement (e.g. where developed, invented, tested, demonstrated, installed, or operated, etc.). A museum where a device or example of the technology is displayed, or the university where the inventor studied, are not, in themselves, sufficient connection for a milestone plaque.

Please give the address(es) of the plaque site(s) (GPS coordinates if you have them). Also please give the details of the mounting, i.e. on the outside of the building, in the ground floor entrance hall, on a plinth on the grounds, etc. If visitors to the plaque site will need to go through security, or make an appointment, please give the contact information visitors will need. 1) Place were Czochralski developed the technology 2) Place were Czochralski invented the technology 3) Place where Czochralski was born and buried

Are the original buildings extant?

YES

Details of the plaque mounting:

1) The plaque will be placed at the Main Hall, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland; 2) The plaque will be placed at the building close to the lab at Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft Berlin, Germany 3) The plaque will placed on large stone located close to the Jan Chochralski monument, Main Square (in the center of the city), Kcynia, Poland

How is the site protected/secured, and in what ways is it accessible to the public?

The plaque site is publicly accessible at one of the largest university of technology in Poland (Warsaw University of Technology) with high concentration of academics and students. There is also open access for the public free entrance. The plaque site is publicly accessible at the University of Applied Sciences for Engineering and Economics. There is also open access for the public free entrance. The plaque site at Kcynia city is publicly accessible.

Who is the present owner of the site(s)?

1) Warsaw University of Technology 2) Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft Berlin, 3) Kcynia town

What is the historical significance of the work (its technological, scientific, or social importance)?

Monocrystalline silicon (mono-Si) grown by the Czochralski process is often referred to as monocrystalline Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si). It is the basic material in the production of integrated circuits used in all types of modern electronic equipment and semiconductor devices, e.g., computers, TVs, mobile phones etc. Monocrystalline silicon is also used in large quantities by the photovoltaic industry for the production of conventional mono-Si solar cells. The almost perfect crystal structure yields the highest light-to-electricity conversion efficiency for silicon. The method of monocristalline silicon growth for large scale industry application started some 30 year later after the method was invented. A year before leaving AEG company in Berlin, in 1916, J.Czochralski wrote a paper on the crystal growth method, later named the “Czochralski method”. The paper was received by the editorial board on August 19, 1916 and was published in 1918, with a two year delay [J. Czochralski, ”Ein neues Verfahren zur Messung des Kristallisationsgeschwindigkeit der Metalle”, Z.Phys. Chem. 92, 219 (1918)]. In the scientific literature, the year 1916 was adopted as the date of elaboration of the method. The idea of Czochralski method is based on pulling a crystal from the melt against gravity forces. This feature contitutes an important difference in respect to other known crystal growth methods. Czochralski has grown single crystals of tin, zinc and lead by this simple method and investigated their rate of crystallization. The paper provided a description of a device, which contained a silk thread with a holder and was completed with a glass rod. A part of the glass immersed in the molten metal was covered with a metal layer, and then the growth was continued. The obtained wires were of about 1 mm diameter and had up to 150 cm in length. The Czochralski method was improved and cited by some authors from the very beginning. For example, in 1918 Wartenberg used a seed zinc wire to grow the crystals of zinc. Later, in 1922, Gompez called this method for the first time the Czochralski method. Later, works describing the method were written by Mark et al. in 1923, by Sachs in 1925 and by others. After invention of germanium-based transistor in 1947, Gordon K. Teal from Bell Laboratory used the Czochralski method to obtain germanium single crystals. The first single crystal of germanium was obtained in 1948 and the results were presented at the Oak Ridge Meeting of the American Physical Society in 1950, and were reported in G.K. Teal, Phys. Rev. 78, 647 (1950). One of the sentences confirms the used method: “germanium single crystals of a variety of shapes, sizes and electrical properties have been produced by means of a pulling technique distinguished from that of Czochralski and others in improvement”. It should be noted that the Czochralski method of crystal growth is continuously improved and developed with regard to the technical level of process automation and including thermodynamic considerations of growth processes even today. It permits to prepare a high quality bulk single crystals, among them silicon, as well as a multitude of oxides, fluorides, metals and alloys, multi-component compounds and solid solutions. Now, the main advantages of the Czochralski method are growing single crystals in defined crystallographic orientations with different sizes, shapes, which are mainly limited by a design of crystal puller.

What obstacles (technical, political, geographic) needed to be overcome?

This is planned to expose and to install IEEE Milestone plaque in two locations in 2 countries: Poland and Germany.

Jan Czochralski was of Polish origin. He was born in 1885 in Kcynia, small town between Poznań and Bydgoszcz. This part of Poland has been under German control since 1773 up to 1918. After finishing education at a local high school, J.Czochralski left Kcynia in 1904 and started to work in Berlin in several laboratories and companies. During this period, he studied chemistry in Königliche Technische Hochschule in Charlottenburg near Berlin. However he was not a regular student because formal regulations (his high–school certification was not admitted in Germany). Because of that, he never was granted neither BSc nor MSc degree. In Berlin, he worked in the laboratory of Kunheim and Co. and later in Allgemeine Elektrizitäts -Gesellschaft (AEG) where he headed the laboratory. From 1911 to 1914, he was an assistant of Wichard von Mollendorff, a well-known metallurgist, technologist, then a vice-director of AEG. At this time he published, together with Mollendorff, the first scientific work on metallographic investigations of aluminum, iron, lead and copper. Jan Czochralski worked in AEG in Berlin until September 1917. A year before leaving AEG, in 1916, he wrote a paper on the crystal growth method, later named the Czochralski method. After his stay in Berlin, in 1917 Czochralski moved to Frankfurt am Main. There, he continued his scientific work and organized the Laboratory of Metal Science of the Metal Gesellschaft A.G. This period is marked out by numerous achievements, such as a patent on “metal B”, a tin-free bearing alloy in 1924, used in railway industry. In 1919, Czochralski was one of the founders of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Metallkunde. (German Metallurgical Society) and in the period of 1924-1929 he was its President. He was also a honorary member of the Institute of Metals in London.

In 1928, prof. Ignacy Mościcki, then President of the Polish Republic, chemist, professor at Warsaw University of Technology, convinced Jan Czochralski to return to Poland, i.e. his country of origin. In 1929, Czochralski received the title of doctor honoris causa of the Warsaw University of Technology. Soon, he was appointed the title and position of professor of Metallurgy and Metal Science Department at the Faculty of Chemistry at Warsaw University of Technology and then of the Institute of Metallurgy and Metal Science. He also founded the Metallurgical Section in the Chemical Research Institute. In Poland, he continued the studies of the rate of crystallization of metals, elastic properties, corrosion of metals and alloys. Jan Czochralski collaborated with many companies and worked in a number of scientific societies. He was an active member of the Chemical Society and the Society of Polish Mechanic Engineers.

During his stay in Germany and in Poland, he obtained a number of valuable research results. He conducted structural investigations, his metallographic investigations required a development of new methods of etching. He constructed a radiomicroscope and optical apparatus for orientation of crystalline samples and for investigation of defects and detection of phases in polycrystalline samples. The Second World War interrupted his scientific activities. He headed a workshop on-site of the (closed) University of Technology. After the war, the Senate of Warsaw University of Technology accused him of collaboration with nazis. Despite lack of evidence, in 1945 the Senate excluded him from scientific life of the country. Then, he moved to his native town Kcynia and together with his family founded a small enterprise, BION, which produced cosmetics and household chemicals. On 22 April, 1953, he died of a heart attack and was buried in his family grave in Kcynia.

In June 2011, the Senate of the Warsaw University of Technology, after a carefully search of Czochralski’s activity during II Word War, adopted a resolution to restore the dignity of Professor Jan Czochralski and on December 7, 2012, the Polish Parliament adopted a resolution declaring 2013 as the Year of Jan Czochralski in Poland.

What features set this work apart from similar achievements?

The Bridgman method is a popular way of producing certain semiconductor crystals such as gallium arsenide, for which the Czochralski process is the most difficult. The process can reliably produce single crystal ingots, but does not necessarily result in uniform properties through the crystal. Bridgman–Stockbarger technique is named after Harvard physicist Percy Williams Bridgman (1882-1961) and MIT physicist Donald C. Stockbarger (1895–1952). The technique includes two similar but distinct methods primarily used for growing boules (single crystal ingots), but which can be used for solidifying polycrystalline ingots as well. The methods involve heating polycrystalline material above its melting point and slowly cooling it from one end of its container, where a seed crystal is located. A single crystal of the same crystallographic orientation as the seed material is grown on the seed and is progressively formed along the length of the container. The process can be carried out in a horizontal or vertical orientation, and usually involves a rotating crucible/ampoule to stir the melt. The uncontrolled gradient produced at the exit of the furnace; the Stockbarger technique introduces a baffle, or shelf, separating two coupled furnaces with temperatures above and below the freezing point. Stockbarger's modification of the Bridgman technique allows for better control over the temperature gradient at the melt/crystal interface

References to establish the dates, location, and importance of the achievement: Minimum of five (5), but as many as needed to support the milestone, such as patents, contemporary newspaper articles, journal articles, or citations to pages in scholarly books. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. At least one of the references must be from a scholarly book or journal article.

The full texts of the following references have been submitted to the IEEE History Center staff.

Jurgen Evers,* Peter Klufers, Rudolf Staudigl,* and Peter Stallhofer – “Czochralski's Creative Mistake: A Milestone on the Way to the Gigabit Era”, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim DOI: 10.1002/ange.200300587 Angew. Chem. 2003, 115, 5862–5877 2. J. Harkonen, E. Tuovinen, P. Luukka, E. Tuominen, at el. –“ Particle detectors made of high-resistivity Czochralski silicon”, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 541 (2005) 202–207 3. Jing-lan Chen, Shu-xia Gao, Wen-hong Wang, Ming Zhang, at el. –“ Single crystals of Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe2 grown by Czochralski method with cold crucible”, Journal of Crystal Growth 236 (2002) 305–310 4. Magdalena Wencka, MirthaPillaca, PeterGille –“ Single crystal growth of Ga3Ni2 by the Czochralski method”, Journal of Crystal Growth 449 (2016) 114–118 5. Czochralski process – Wikipedia

Supporting materials (supported formats: GIF, JPEG, PNG, PDF, DOC): All supporting materials must be in English, or if not in English, accompanied by an English translation. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. For documents that are copyright-encumbered, or which you do not have rights to post, email the documents themselves to ieee-history@ieee.org. Please see the Milestone Program Guidelines for more information.

1. Jurgen Evers,* Peter Klufers, Rudolf Staudigl,* and Peter Stallhofer – “Czochralski's Creative Mistake: A Milestone on the Way to the Gigabit Era”, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim DOI: 10.1002/ange.200300587 Angew. Chem. 2003, 115, 5862–5877
2. J. Harkonen, E. Tuovinen, P. Luukka, E. Tuominen, at el. –“ Particle detectors made of high-resistivity Czochralski silicon”, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 541 (2005) 202–207
3. Jing-lan Chen, Shu-xia Gao, Wen-hong Wang, Ming Zhang, at el. –“ Single crystals of Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe2 grown by Czochralski method with cold crucible”, Journal of Crystal Growth 236 (2002) 305–310
4. Magdalena Wencka, MirthaPillaca, PeterGille –“ Single crystal growth of Ga3Ni2 by the Czochralski method”, Journal of Crystal Growth 449 (2016) 114–118
5. Czochralski process – Wikipedia

Additional reading Tomaszewski, Pawel E., Jan Czochralski Restored, 2012, Officyna Wydawnicza ATUT, Wroclaw

Please email a jpeg or PDF a letter in English, or with English translation, from the site owner(s) giving permission to place IEEE milestone plaque on the property, and a letter (or forwarded email) from the appropriate Section Chair supporting the Milestone application to ieee-history@ieee.org with the subject line "Attention: Milestone Administrator." Note that there are multiple texts of the letter depending on whether an IEEE organizational unit other than the section will be paying for the plaque(s).