Milestone-Proposal talk:Invention of Temparature- Insensitive Quartz Oscillation Plate Enabling HIghly Stable Communications and Clocks, 1933

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Comments and modification to citation -- Enrique Tejera (talk) 14:01, 29 April 2016 (CDT)

I am the advocate for the proposed milestone Temperature-Insensitive Quartz Oscillation, 1933. I have revised all the material included in the proposal and found it complete with the technical merits to be accepted as an IEEE Milestone.

During the revision I have been able to check on the material submitted and the conflicts that may be with other developments related to the topic, but the submitted data shows enough to prove the validity of the proposed milestone.

Regarding citation and trying to make it readable for everybody, here is a suggestion to modify it:

Invention of Temperature-Insensitive Quartz Oscillation Plate, 1933

In April 1933, Issac Koga of the Tokyo Institute of Technology discovered cutting angles that produced quartz crystal plates having a zero temperature coefficient of frequency. These angles, 54⁰ 45’ and 137⁰ 59’, he named the R1 and R2 cuts. Temperature-insensitive quartz crystal was used at first for radio transmitters and later for clocks, and has proven indispensable to all radio communication systems and much of information electronics.


Enrique Tejera

Advocate approval of IEEE Milestone proposal 2015-15 Temperature-Insensitive Quartz -- Enrique Tejera (talk) 14:27, 1 June 2016 (CDT)

The proposed changes to the citation was sent to the proposer and it was accepted with the following text received on May 16, 2016

Dear Robert Colburn and Enriqe Tejera, cc: Kenichi Iga

I thank you for your information on the status of the proposal for the IEEE Milestone on “Invention of Temperature-Insensitive Quartz Oscillation Plate Enabling Highly Stable Communications and Clocks, 1933”.

We are pleased to hear that you will recommend the proposal to the IEEE History Committee.

With respect to your advice for the modification of the citation, we agree with your modification. I logged on to the proposal and checked the current status of the citation. I found that your suggestion for the modification was already reflected.

Yours sincerely, Taiji Nishizawa

Citation -- Djkemp (talk) 20:54, 2 June 2016 (CDT)

I support the approval of this and an IEEE Milestone - with corrections to the spelling (temparature) and grammar (add space between temperature and the dash.

Re: Citation -- Administrator4 (talk) 10:04, 3 June 2016 (CDT)

The spelling is correct in the citation. Do not worry about the page URL, it will change if/when the proposal is approved anyway. Hyphens (which is what that is, not a dash) do not get spacing.

Re: Citation -- Allisonmarsh (talk) 13:18, 3 June 2016 (CDT)

I support this milestone. I had to re-read the citation several times to fully understand it, which I think might make it difficult for someone who just encounters it while passing by. However, I do think the information is clear.

-- Savini (talk) 05:25, 6 June 2016 (CDT)

I agree with Allison's remark. I support the proposal.

Comment on behalf of John Vig -- Administrator5 (talk) 07:51, 6 June 2016 (CDT)

I propose that the citation be modified by inserting "A" into the citation; i.e., instead of

Invention of Temperature-Insensitive Quartz Oscillation Plate, 1933 the citation should be Invention of *A* Temperature-Insensitive Quartz Oscillation Plate, 1933

The reason is that the first temperature-insensitive quartz oscillation plate was invented prior to 1933. Koga was one of the early inventors but not the first inventor. The first temperature-insensitive quartz oscillation plate was the AT-cut, as stated in, for example, Bottom's book, see attached pages. (The AT-cut was invented at RCA, in the USA.)

Re: Comment on behalf of John Vig -- Administrator7 (talk) 15:55, 13 June 2016 (CDT)

Five years after Virgil Bottom wrote the book referred to above, he wrote a history of quartz crystals in the U.S ( In it, he states "Efforts to develop a practical unit having a low frequency-temperature coefficient were successful in 1934 when the AT- and BT-cuts were discovered independently by Koga in Japan, by Bechmann and Straubel in Germany and by Lack, Willard and Fair in the United States. Two years later Baldwin and Bokovoy of RCA introduced the V-cut."

As the proposers have carefully demonstrated, Koga discovered the R1 and R2 cuts in 1933, followed by Bechmann 10 days later. They point out that these cuts are the same as the AT-cuts reported by Willard, Lack, and Fair of Bell Labs in 1934 (, see p. 460, Fig. 4); only the terminology and format of the graph differs. Bokovoy's relevant patents, 2,111,383 ( and 2,111,384 ( were applied for in 1935 and 1936. A 1956 700-page handbook on piezo-electric crystals for radio commissioned by the U.S. Air Force notes that the RCA engineers' work, "although of a less rigorous theoretical approach, substantially paralleled much of the research that was done at Bell Laboratories" (, p. 4-5).

The proposers have done an exemplary job of avoiding the "first" issue, highlighting the practical and theoretical bases for Dr. Koga's accomplishment. Inserting an indefinite article in the title suggests that his work was no more or less consequential than the earlier, poorly understood, impractical, and temperature-insensitive crystals. As it is, the nominators leave the door open to German, Bell Labs, and RCA advocates to nominate their own Milestones in this technology should they wish to do so.

I support the proposal as corrected by Vig, et al. -- Microman (talk) 08:28, 6 June 2016 (CDT)

I support the proposal as amended.