Edit Proposal: Milestone-Proposal:Walter Guyton Cady You do not have permission to edit this page, for the following reason: You are not currently logged in. The action you have requested is limited to users in the group: Users. Please log in or create an account. Docket ID: (admins only) Thank you for proposing a technical achievement for possible recognition as an IEEE Milestone in Electrical Engineering and Computing. Your efforts help preserve the heritage of technology. Detailed information on the Milestone application process may be found at: Milestone Guidelines and How to Propose a Milestone. At least one of the proposer(s) must be an IEEE Member (including Student Member) in good standing. To the proposer’s knowledge, is this achievement subject to litigation? If the answer is "yes", the proposal cannot proceed further. Yes No You must be able to answer "yes" to all of the following questions. If the answer to any of the following questions is "no", the proposal cannot proceed further. Contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org if you are unable to answer "yes" to all of the following and would still like to proceed. Is the achievement you are proposing more than 25 years old? Yes No Is the achievement you are proposing within IEEE’s designated fields as defined by IEEE Bylaw I-104.11, namely: Engineering, Computer Sciences and Information Technology, Physical Sciences, Biological and Medical Sciences, Mathematics, Technical Communications, Education, Management, and Law and Policy. Yes No Did the achievement provide a meaningful benefit for humanity? Yes No Was it of at least regional importance? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to pay for the milestone plaque(s)? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to arrange the dedication ceremony? Yes No Has the IEEE Section in which the milestone is located agreed to take responsibility for the plaque after it is dedicated? Yes No Has the owner of the site given permission to place an IEEE plaque? Yes No Year or range of years in which the achievement occurred: Title of the proposed milestone. (Include date or date range in title. Example: “Alternating Current Electrification, 1886”) Please provide a plaque citation in English summarizing the achievement and its significance. Text absolutely limited by plaque dimensions to 70 words; 60 is preferable for aesthetic reasons. NOTE: The IEEE History Committee shall have final determination on the wording of the citation. Names of living persons are not normally used in citations. Exceptions to this are cases where the person's name is linked to the achievement itself (e.g. the Lempel-Ziv algorithm, Maxwell's Equations, etc.) or where the person's name is so widely recognizeable to the general public that it makes sense to use it. When used, the names should be the names of the engineers, scientists, or technologists who actually made the achievement, rather than managers or executives. For more information and suggestions about writing milestone citations, please visit Helpful Hints on Citations, Plaque Locations. In 1921, research at Wesleyan led to development of the first circuit to control frequencies based on a quartz crystal resonator. This technique was later applied in standards of frequency as a filter and for coupling between circuits. Piezoelectric quartz oscillators advanced ultrasonics, sonar, radar, and myriads of other electronic applications. They appeared in everyday life through their use in quartz wristwatches. In what IEEE section(s) will the milestone plaque(s) reside? Please specify the IEEE Organizational Unit(s) which have agreed to sponsor the Milestone, and supply name and contact information for the senior officer from those OU(s). Sponsorship has three aspects: 1) Payment for the cost of the plaque(s), 2) Arranging the dedication ceremony, and 3) agreeing to monitor the plaque and to let IEEE History Center staff know in case the plaque needs to be moved, is no longer secure, etc. Number 3 must be done by the IEEE Section(s) in which the plaque(s) is located, but aspects 1 and 2 can be done by any IEEE Organizational Unit, and they need not be the same one. Please note: your email address and contact information will be masked on the website for privacy reasons. Only IEEE History Center Staff will be able to view the email address. IEEE Organizational Unit(s) paying for milestone plaque(s) Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE Organizational Unit(s) arranging the dedication ceremony Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE section(s) monitoring the plaque IEEE Section: IEEE Section Chair name: IEEE Section Chair e-mail: Milestone proposer(s) Proposer name: Proposer email: Proposer name: Proposer email: Street address(es) and GPS coordinates of the intended milestone plaque site(s). Please include coordinates in decimal format rather than degrees. What is the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s) relation to the achievement? The intended site(s) must have a direct connection with the achievement (e.g. where developed, invented, tested, demonstrated, installed, or operated, etc.). A museum where a device or example of the technology is displayed, or the university where the inventor studied, are not, in themselves, sufficient connection for a milestone plaque. Also, please Describe briefly the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s). (e.g. Is it corporate buildings? Historic Site? Residential? Are there other historical markers already at the site?) Are the original buildings extant? Please provide the details of the mounting, i.e. on the outside of the building, in the ground floor entrance hall, on a plinth on the grounds, etc. How is the intended plaque site protected/secured, and in what ways is it accessible to the public? If visitors to the plaque site will need to go through security, or make an appointment, please give details as well as the contact information visitors will need in order to arrange to visit the plaque. Who is the present owner of the site(s)? In the space below, please describe in detail: the historic significance of the achievement, its importance to the evolution of electrical and computer engineering and science, its importance to regional/national/international development, its benefits to humanity, the ways the achievement was a significant advance rather than an incremental improvement of existing technology. The material submitted here will constitute the main descriptive article on the ETHW website for readers to learn about the milestone. Space is unlimited, and detail is encouraged. Most milestones require 1000 to 1500 words of support, however there is no word limit. The article should be readable by a wide audience that includes practicing engineers, scholars of history, and the general public. Some examples of the text of good milestone articles are First Radio Astronomical Observations Using Very Long Baseline Interferometry] and G3_Facsimile International Standardization of G3 Facsimile (Do not worry about the formatting of the page, IEEE History Center Staff will do that afterwards.) What is the historical significance of the work (its technological, scientific, or social importance)? Professor Walter Guyton Cady died on December 9, 1974, the day before his 100th birthday. Professor Cady, best known for his discovery of the principle of the crystal oscillator and his monumental treatise Piezoelectricity , well deserves the title of the "Father of Modern Piezoelectricity". The piezoelectric effect was discovered by Jacques and Pierre Curie in 1880. They found that a pressure on certain faces of a quartz crystal produced electric charges and a voltage could be measured between the faces. This is the direct piezoelectric effect and it is exhibited by single crystals, ceramics, polymers, and biological materials that have no center of crystallographic symmetry. Twenty of the 21 non-centrosymmetric point groups show this effect. The Curie brothers had discovered the direct piezoelectric effect. In the converse piezoelectric effect, an electric field applied between certain surfaces of a piezoelectric material results in a strain, a change in dimensions of the material. It was predicted by Gabriel Lippmann in 1881 and was immediately confirmed experimentally by the Curies. The piezoelectric effect was only a scientific curiosity until 1917 when Paul Langevin showed that a device consisting of a mosaic of quartz crystals mounted between two steel plates and immersed in sea water could generate longitudinal waves and pick up reflections from objects some distance away. Cady was born on December 10, 1874, in Providence, Rhode Island. He studied at Brown University, receiving the Ph:B. degree in 1895 and the M. A. degree in 1896. His master's thesis on the dynamic behavior of a top with a blunt tip was carried out under the direction of Carl Barus. During this time Cady published his first paper, on the determination of the volume of an air bulb thermometer. He continued his graduate studies at the University of Berlin receiving the Ph.D. degree in 1900. His thesis was a study of the energy of cathode rays, under the direction of Warburg and Walter Kaufmann. Upon his return to the United States, Cady joined the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey and became the head of a magnetic observatory in Maryland. During this time he published his first completely independent work on a direct recording magnetic variometer. In 1902 he joined the Physics Department of Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut. He rose to the rank of Assistant Professor the next year and became Professor and Head of the Physics Department in 1907. He remained at Wesleyan University until 1951, becoming Professor Emeritus in 1946. During his early years at Wesleyan he studied arc and glow discharges between metallic electrodes. Professor Cady's interests in piezoelectricity were first aroused in 1917. The German submarine menace in World War I had reached very severe proportions. A conference sponsored by the National Research Council was convened in Washington on June 14-16, 1917 under the leadership of Robert A. Millikan to discuss the problem. Cady was invited to the conference because of his interests in submarine detection with ultrasonic waves produced by a magnetostrictive generator. At the conference, the French delegates announced that Paul Langevin had been generating and detecting ultrasonic waves under water by means of quartz-steel "sandwich" transducers. As a result of the meeting, Cady's research interests permanently turned to piezoelectricity. He first collaborated with a General Electric group studying quartz and Rochelle salt crystals in 1917 and then with a Columbia University group where he worked on Rochelle salt hydrophone receivers designed to resonate at the transmitted frequency. These studies culminated in field tests at the Navy Yard in Key West, Florida in 1918 and the Naval Station in New London, Connecticut in 1918-1919. During the course of his tests in 1917 and 1918, Cady noticed the effect on the driving circuit of a quartz crystal when the frequency was close to the natural mode of vibration of the crystal. On February 26, 1921, Cady described a piezoelectric resonator at a meeting of the American Physical Society and suggested that it could be used as a standard of frequency or a coupling device between circuits. Immediately after, he began the investigation of the control of the frequency of an oscillator by means of a crystal. A description of the first piezo-oscillator circuit, using a 39-mrn long quartz bar oscillating in a longitudinal mode at about 70,000 Hz, was presented to the American Physical Society on December 28, 1921. Cady took his only sabbatical leave from Wesleyan in 1923 to travel to Europe for an inter-comparison of quartz resonators, calibrated at the National Bureau of Standards, with frequency standards at the national laboratories of Italy, France, and England. During the next twenty years, Cady concentrated his efforts on the piezo-resonator and the piezo-oscillator as well as on fundamental piezoelectric studies, with special emphasis on Rochelle salt. In the early 1930's, Cady planned to write a short monograph on piezoelectricity. But upon a suggestion by F. K. Richtmyer, he extended it into a full-length book, the monumental Piezoelectricity , first published in 1946. The book was revised and republished in 1964, and, even today, is still so relevant that every researcher in the field makes use of it. Cady's services were required for underwater detection problems again immediately after the attack on Pearl Harbor in World War II, and he spent a short period at the Naval and Sound Laboratory in San Diego in 1941. In 1945, he worked for the Radiation Laboratory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on quartz transducers for radar trainers. After World War II and his official retirement, Cady remained at Wesleyan studying transducer theory, methods of measurement, and acoustic-radiation pressure with the support of the Office of Naval Research. He worked at the California Institute of Technology from 1951 to 1955 on problems of resonator and filter theory and measurement of acoustic power. In his 1955 experiments, he produced acoustic waves at a frequency of 3000 MHz. Cady continued an active life, publishing a mathematical paper on the circular tractrix in 1965 and receiving patents on a piezoelectric vibrator in 1968 and on a detector of mechanical vibrations in 1973. Professor Cady was active in a number of societies including the American Physical Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, and the Institute of Radio Engineers of which he was president in 1932-1933. He was a member of several committees of the National Research Council and was a Lieutenant Commander in the U.S. Naval Reserve. Among the honors awarded him were the Liebmann Memorial Prize of the Institute of Radio Engineers in 1928 and the 1937 Duddell Medal of the Physical Society of London. He received honorary Sc.D. degrees from Brown University in 1938 and Wesleyan University in 1958. Walter Guyton Cady wrote, "In experimental work I have learned the value of making a special study of obstacles, hindrances, and disturbing factors, to see if they can be made to serve a useful purpose. In other words, to convert stumbling blocks into stepping stones". Professor Cady's stepping stone of the piezo electric oscillator continues today to enter our laboratories and enrich our lives through devices as diverse as quartz thermometers, film-thickness gauges, piezoelectric chemical detectors, and quartz watches. What obstacles (technical, political, geographic) needed to be overcome? None are known What features set this work apart from similar achievements? Cady's accomplishments were unique. Nothing similar had ever been done previously. Supporting texts and citations to establish the dates, location, and importance of the achievement. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Minimum of five (5), but as many as needed to support the milestone, such as patents, contemporary newspaper articles, journal articles, or chapters in scholarly books. At least one of the references must be from a scholarly book or journal article. 'Scholarly' is defined as peer-reviewed, with references, and published. The full reference, in English, must be uploaded, not just the citation. See below section for details on uploading material to the website. All supporting materials must be in English, or accompanied by an English translation. Supporting materials (supported formats: GIF, JPEG, PNG, PDF, DOC) which can be made publicly available on the IEEE History Center’s website (i.e. unencumbered by copyright, or with the copyright holder’s permission). All supporting materials must be in English, or if not in English, accompanied by an English translation. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Images and photographs are especially appreciated, however, it is necessary that you list the copyright owner for these and obtain the copyright owner’s permission to reuse. For documents that are copyright-encumbered, or which you do not have rights to post, email the documents themselves to email@example.com. Please see the Milestone Program Guidelines for more information. To add attachments, first upload the file and add by adding the text: [[Media:(filename)]] For example, if the file you uploaded was named "Milestone Reference.pdf", include the text: [[Media:Milestone Reference.pdf]] in the appropriate field. Documents will be sent separately as a zip file containing six files. The zip file will be e-mailed to firstname.lastname@example.org. Please email a jpeg or PDF a letter in English, or with English translation, from the site owner(s) giving permission to place IEEE milestone plaque on the property, and a letter (or forwarded email) from the appropriate Section Chair supporting the Milestone application to email@example.com with the subject line "Attention: Milestone Administrator." Note that there are multiple texts of the letter depending on whether an IEEE organizational unit other than the section will be paying for the plaque(s). Submit this proposal to the IEEE History Committee for review. Only check this when the proposal is finished Summary: This is a minor edit Watch this page Cancel Retrieved from "http://ieeemilestones.ethw.org/Milestone-Proposal:Walter_Guyton_Cady"