Edit Proposal: Milestone-Proposal:The first satellite broadcasting to the public You do not have permission to edit this page, for the following reason: You are not currently logged in. The action you have requested is limited to users in the group: Users. Please log in or create an account. Docket ID: (admins only) Thank you for proposing a technical achievement for possible recognition as an IEEE Milestone in Electrical Engineering and Computing. Your efforts help preserve the heritage of technology. Detailed information on the Milestone application process may be found at: Milestone Guidelines and How to Propose a Milestone. At least one of the proposer(s) must be an IEEE Member (including Student Member) in good standing. To the proposer’s knowledge, is this achievement subject to litigation? If the answer is "yes", the proposal cannot proceed further. Yes No You must be able to answer "yes" to all of the following questions. If the answer to any of the following questions is "no", the proposal cannot proceed further. Contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org if you are unable to answer "yes" to all of the following and would still like to proceed. Is the achievement you are proposing more than 25 years old? Yes No Is the achievement you are proposing within IEEE’s designated fields as defined by IEEE Bylaw I-104.11, namely: Engineering, Computer Sciences and Information Technology, Physical Sciences, Biological and Medical Sciences, Mathematics, Technical Communications, Education, Management, and Law and Policy. Yes No Did the achievement provide a meaningful benefit for humanity? Yes No Was it of at least regional importance? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to pay for the milestone plaque(s)? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to arrange the dedication ceremony? Yes No Has the IEEE Section in which the milestone is located agreed to take responsibility for the plaque after it is dedicated? Yes No Has the owner of the site given permission to place an IEEE plaque? Yes No Year or range of years in which the achievement occurred: 1984 Title of the proposed milestone. (Include date or date range in title. Example: “Alternating Current Electrification, 1886”) The first satellite broadcasting to the public Please provide a plaque citation in English summarizing the achievement and its significance. Text absolutely limited by plaque dimensions to 70 words; 60 is preferable for aesthetic reasons. NOTE: The IEEE History Committee shall have final determination on the wording of the citation. For more information and suggestions about writing milestone citations, please visit Helpful Hints on Citations, Plaque Locations. In what IEEE section(s) will the milestone plaque(s) reside? IEEE Tokyo Section Please specify the IEEE Organizational Unit(s) which have agreed to sponsor the Milestone, and supply name and contact information for the senior officer from those OU(s). Sponsorship has three aspects: 1) Payment for the cost of the plaque(s), 2) Arranging the dedication ceremony, and 3) agreeing to monitor the plaque and to let IEEE History Center staff know in case the plaque needs to be moved, is no longer secure, etc. Number 3 must be done by the IEEE Section(s) in which the plaque(s) is located, but aspects 1 and 2 can be done by any IEEE Organizational Unit, and they need not be the same one. Please note: your email address and contact information will be masked on the website for privacy reasons. Only IEEE History Center Staff will be able to view the email address. IEEE Organizational Unit(s) paying for milestone plaque(s) Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE Organizational Unit(s) arranging the dedication ceremony Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE section(s) monitoring the plaque IEEE Section: IEEE Section Chair name: IEEE Section Chair e-mail: IEEE Section: IEEE Section Chair name: IEEE Section Chair e-mail: Milestone proposer(s) Proposer name: Proposer email: Proposer name: Proposer email: Street address(es) and GPS coordinates of the intended milestone plaque site(s). Please include coordinates in decimal format rather than degrees. NHK Science and Technology Research Laboratories What is the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s) relation to the achievement? The intended site(s) must have a direct connection with the achievement (e.g. where developed, invented, tested, demonstrated, installed, or operated, etc.). A museum where a device or example of the technology is displayed, or the university where the inventor studied, are not, in themselves, sufficient connection for a milestone plaque. Also, please Describe briefly the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s). (e.g. Is it corporate buildings? Historic Site? Residential? Are there other historical markers already at the site?) The milestone plaque will be installed outside the building of NHK Science and Technology Research Laboratories, but within the laboratories lot at the entrance space. The location is chosen so that every visitor to the laboratories can see the milestone plaque. Are the original buildings extant? No Please provide the details of the mounting, i.e. on the outside of the building, in the ground floor entrance hall, on a plinth on the grounds, etc. How is the intended plaque site protected/secured, and in what ways is it accessible to the public? If visitors to the plaque site will need to go through security, or make an appointment, please give details as well as the contact information visitors will need in order to arrange to visit the plaque. The building of the laboratories is guarded by security personnel at the entrance of the laboratories lot and at the entrance of the building. The entrance lobby of the building is open to the public so that visitors can see the display about broadcast technologies. Who is the present owner of the site(s)? NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation) In the space below, please describe in detail: the historic significance of the achievement, its importance to the evolution of electrical and computer engineering and science, its importance to regional/national/international development, its benefits to humanity, the ways the achievement was a significant advance rather than an incremental improvement of existing technology. The material submitted here will constitute the main descriptive article on the ETHW website for readers to learn about the milestone. Space is unlimited, and detail is encouraged. Most milestones require 1000 to 1500 words of support, however there is no word limit. The article should be readable by a wide audience that includes practicing engineers, scholars of history, and the general public. Some examples of the text of good milestone articles are First Radio Astronomical Observations Using Very Long Baseline Interferometry] and G3_Facsimile International Standardization of G3 Facsimile (Do not worry about the formatting of the page, IEEE History Center Staff will do that afterwards.) What is the historical significance of the work (its technological, scientific, or social importance)? NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation) planned to use satellites for broadcasting in 1965 in response to the communications satellites being developed in the USA, and began to research and development of satellites next year. After extensive research at NHK Laboratories and the experiments by NHK and other organizations through the experimental broadcasting satellite which was manufactured by Toshiba and GE, the first practical broadcasting satellite was launched by NASDA (National Space Development Agency) of Japan in January 1984, and satellite broadcasting to the public started in May of that year. The satellite broadcasting provided high quality TV services to the general public. What obstacles (technical, political, geographic) needed to be overcome? The biggest problem was how to build a broadcasting satellite of the same size as a communications satellite. The selection of the 12 GHz band and Dr. Yoshihiro Konishi’s invention, an inexpensive solid-plane circuit with a lower noise figure in the 12 GHz band, were instrumental in solving this problem. By using low-noise home receivers, the output power of the transmitter on the satellite could be lowered to 100W, thereby enabling the satellite to be smaller. An affordable receiver was also important; without one, satellite broadcasting would never be popular. The answer was again in the solid-plane circuit, which could be easily made by punching. The know-how to make receivers with this circuit was transferred to 31 manufacturers, inside as well as outside Japan. Moreover, by developing measurement systems of rain attenuation and computer software for channel allotment, NHK helped to solve other problems such as the attenuation of 12 GHz waves by rain and how to allot frequencies and orbital positions fairly. What features set this work apart from similar achievements? Direct broadcasting from a satellite in geostationary orbit to home receivers equipped with a small antenna was not the usual form of satellite communication at that time, and it represented a significant advance in satellite transmission capabilities. The satellite broadcasting provided clear beautiful TV pictures over a very large area, covering not only the main islands of Japan but also remote islands. The pictures were free of any ghost images from signals off reflected buildings and mountains. After a few years, even high definition TV (HDTV) broadcasting was provided. Significant references to establish the dates, location, and importance of the achievement. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Minimum of five (5), but as many as needed to support the milestone, such as patents, contemporary newspaper articles, journal articles, or citations to pages in scholarly books. At least one of the references must be from a scholarly book or journal article. The full reference, in English, must be uploaded, not just the citation. See below section for details on uploading material to the website. Supporting materials (supported formats: GIF, JPEG, PNG, PDF, DOC) which can be made publicly available on the IEEE History Center’s website (i.e. unencumbered by copyright, or with the copyright holder’s permission). All supporting materials must be in English, or if not in English, accompanied by an English translation. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Images and photographs are especially appreciated, however, it is necessary that you list the copyright owner for these and obtain the copyright owner’s permission to reuse. For documents that are copyright-encumbered, or which you do not have rights to post, email the documents themselves to email@example.com. Please see the Milestone Program Guidelines for more information. To add attachments, first upload the file and add by adding the text [[Media:(filename)]] - if the file you uploaded was named "Milestone Reference.pdf", include the text [[Media:Milestone Reference.pdf]] in the appropriate field. Please email a jpeg or PDF a letter in English, or with English translation, from the site owner(s) giving permission to place IEEE milestone plaque on the property, and a letter (or forwarded email) from the appropriate Section Chair supporting the Milestone application to firstname.lastname@example.org with the subject line "Attention: Milestone Administrator." Note that there are multiple texts of the letter depending on whether an IEEE organizational unit other than the section will be paying for the plaque(s). Submit this proposal to the IEEE History Committee for review. 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