Edit Proposal: Milestone-Proposal:The first magnetic resonance image (MRI) You do not have permission to edit this page, for the following reason: You are not currently logged in. The action you have requested is limited to users in the group: Users. Please log in or create an account. Docket ID: (admins only) Thank you for proposing a technical achievement for possible recognition as an IEEE Milestone in Electrical Engineering and Computing. Your efforts help preserve the heritage of technology. Detailed information on the Milestone application process may be found at: Milestone Guidelines and How to Propose a Milestone. At least one of the proposer(s) must be an IEEE Member (including Student Member) in good standing. To the proposer’s knowledge, is this achievement subject to litigation? If the answer is "yes", the proposal cannot proceed further. Yes No You must be able to answer "yes" to all of the following questions. If the answer to any of the following questions is "no", the proposal cannot proceed further. Contact us at email@example.com if you are unable to answer "yes" to all of the following and would still like to proceed. Is the achievement you are proposing more than 25 years old? Yes No Is the achievement you are proposing within IEEE’s designated fields as defined by IEEE Bylaw I-104.11, namely: Engineering, Computer Sciences and Information Technology, Physical Sciences, Biological and Medical Sciences, Mathematics, Technical Communications, Education, Management, and Law and Policy. Yes No Did the achievement provide a meaningful benefit for humanity? Yes No Was it of at least regional importance? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to pay for the milestone plaque(s)? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to arrange the dedication ceremony? Yes No Has the IEEE Section in which the milestone is located agreed to take responsibility for the plaque after it is dedicated? Yes No Has the owner of the site given permission to place an IEEE plaque? Yes No Year or range of years in which the achievement occurred: Title of the proposed milestone. (Include date or date range in title. Example: “Alternating Current Electrification, 1886”) Please provide a plaque citation in English summarizing the achievement and its significance. Text absolutely limited by plaque dimensions to 70 words; 60 is preferable for aesthetic reasons. NOTE: The IEEE History Committee shall have final determination on the wording of the citation. Names of living persons are not normally used in citations. Exceptions to this are cases where the person's name is linked to the achievement itself (e.g. the Lempel-Ziv algorithm, Maxwell's Equations, etc.) or where the person's name is so widely recognizeable to the general public that it makes sense to use it. When used, the names should be the names of the engineers, scientists, or technologists who actually made the achievement, rather than managers or executives. For more information and suggestions about writing milestone citations, please visit Helpful Hints on Citations, Plaque Locations. Researchers at Stony Brook University produced the first two-dimensional image using nuclear magnetic resonance in 1973.The proton distribution of the object, a test tube of water, was distinctly encoded using magnetic field gradients. This achievement was a major advance for MRI and paved the way for its worldwide usage as a noninvasive method to examine body tissue for disease detection. In what IEEE section(s) will the milestone plaque(s) reside? Please specify the IEEE Organizational Unit(s) which have agreed to sponsor the Milestone, and supply name and contact information for the senior officer from those OU(s). Sponsorship has three aspects: 1) Payment for the cost of the plaque(s), 2) Arranging the dedication ceremony, and 3) agreeing to monitor the plaque and to let IEEE History Center staff know in case the plaque needs to be moved, is no longer secure, etc. Number 3 must be done by the IEEE Section(s) in which the plaque(s) is located, but aspects 1 and 2 can be done by any IEEE Organizational Unit, and they need not be the same one. Please note: your email address and contact information will be masked on the website for privacy reasons. Only IEEE History Center Staff will be able to view the email address. IEEE Organizational Unit(s) paying for milestone plaque(s) Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE Organizational Unit(s) arranging the dedication ceremony Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE section(s) monitoring the plaque IEEE Section: IEEE Section Chair name: IEEE Section Chair e-mail: IEEE Section: IEEE Section Chair name: IEEE Section Chair e-mail: Milestone proposer(s) Proposer name: Proposer email: Proposer name: Proposer email: Street address(es) and GPS coordinates of the intended milestone plaque site(s). Please include coordinates in decimal format rather than degrees. What is the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s) relation to the achievement? The intended site(s) must have a direct connection with the achievement (e.g. where developed, invented, tested, demonstrated, installed, or operated, etc.). A museum where a device or example of the technology is displayed, or the university where the inventor studied, are not, in themselves, sufficient connection for a milestone plaque. Also, please Describe briefly the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s). (e.g. Is it corporate buildings? Historic Site? Residential? Are there other historical markers already at the site?) Are the original buildings extant? Please provide the details of the mounting, i.e. on the outside of the building, in the ground floor entrance hall, on a plinth on the grounds, etc. How is the intended plaque site protected/secured, and in what ways is it accessible to the public? If visitors to the plaque site will need to go through security, or make an appointment, please give details as well as the contact information visitors will need in order to arrange to visit the plaque. Who is the present owner of the site(s)? In the space below, please describe in detail: the historic significance of the achievement, its importance to the evolution of electrical and computer engineering and science, its importance to regional/national/international development, its benefits to humanity, the ways the achievement was a significant advance rather than an incremental improvement of existing technology. The material submitted here will constitute the main descriptive article on the ETHW website for readers to learn about the milestone. Space is unlimited, and detail is encouraged. Most milestones require 1000 to 1500 words of support, however there is no word limit. The article should be readable by a wide audience that includes practicing engineers, scholars of history, and the general public. Some examples of the text of good milestone articles are First Radio Astronomical Observations Using Very Long Baseline Interferometry] and G3_Facsimile International Standardization of G3 Facsimile (Do not worry about the formatting of the page, IEEE History Center Staff will do that afterwards.) What is the historical significance of the work (its technological, scientific, or social importance)? September 2, 1971. Paul Lauterbur’s original idea for obtaining two-dimensional and three- dimensional images showing the distribution of magnetic nuclei relaxation times and diffusion coefficients were recorded in his notebook. A copy of this entry is found in Appendix A. His subsequent experiments resulted in producing the first two- dimensional magnetic resonance image (MRI) and the results were published in the March 16, 1973 issue of Nature. Appendix B is a copy of that article. Prior to his effort, when NMR measurements were made on substances, there was no way to identify where the resonances occurred because a fixed magnetic field was applied. He realized that if a linear gradient was added to the fixed magnetic field it would be possible to spatially encode the substance in one dimension. By rotating this linearly varying magnetic field, he could get responses in other single dimensions.By doing so with three 45 degree rotations ,he was able to fill a two dimensional space. This groundbreaking achievement drew on several prior technologies. *Availability of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy equipment to measure the properties of chemical substances. *Tomography algorithms previously developed for X-Ray CT scanning. We will briefly review the prior knowledge that Lauterbur needed to accomplish his goal. A. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) NMR is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei absorb and re-emit elecromagnetic radiation, typically in the 60-1000 MHz region. This occurs at a specific frequency which is proportional to the applied magnetic field. It can be used to study he properties of a wide range of chemical substances. However, in the case of MRI for medical application, one is usually concerned hydrogen protons contained in water molecules. NMR was first observed by Isadore Rabi in 1938 in gases. Felix Bloch and Edward Purcell demonstrated its use in liquids and solids. They all received Nobel Prizes for their work. The resonant behavior can be observed by applying electromagnetic radiation at the same frequency of the precession of the protons. B- NMR Equipment Lauterbur’s two-dimensional images were produced by using a Varian A60 NMR spectrometer with coils added to produce magnetic field gradients. Photos of the A60 and Lauterbur doing his early research on that equipment are found in Appendix C and an upload file-PLauterbur. The slope of the gradient corresponded to 700Hz per cm. The sample to be imaged received electromagnetic (RF) radiation at a nominal frequency of 60MHz. This frequency was varied to get a linear projection. Lauterbur imaged a water tube such that resonant interaction occurred only with the waters hydrogen protons. He then rotated the gradient field at three additional 45degree intervals to obtain sufficient data to construct a satisfactory two-dimensional image. His final step was to construct an image from these data. He realized that the problem had been solved for X-Ray CT scans and suitable algorithms were available. Lauterbur used one described by Gordon and Herman which is found in Appendix D. While he did not do so in his early work, he realized that previously developed Fourier transformed NMR and FFT algorithms could speed up image formation. While the current MRI equipment is vastly more complex, Lauterbur’s achievement had much to do with spurring these developments. C- Scanning and Transient NMR While Lauterbur’s original work was done by scanning the RF signal, he noted that transient (Fourier transform) methods could be used as well, as described below. Since the introduction of a magnetic field gradient will enable the resonance of a substance to be a function of distance; in Lauterbur’s case, he was imaging two 1mm inside diameter glass tubes filled with water. Thus, if we vary the frequency of the applied electromagnetic (RF) energy, we could get a one-dimensional projection of the water. Lauterbur rotated the magnetic field at 3 additional 45 degree intervals. These four linear projections filled up the two-dimensional space. Lauterbur was able to construct a two-dimensional image with the aid of an algorithm developed by Gordon and Herman. (see Appendix D). The algorithm had been developed to obtain two-dimensional images from X-Ray CT scans. The transient method would involve pulse modulation of the RF signal. The pulse width would have to short enough to produce a frequency spectrum that would encompass the maximum shift in resonant frequency due to the gradient magnetic field change. If such a pulse were applied to the substance to be imaged and a Fourier transform of the response is performed, it would generate the desired linear projection. Using Fourier transform NMR clearly speeds up the process of determining the image. At the time of Lauterbur’s 1973 Nature article, he used frequency scanning. Fourier Transform NMR was a known technique when he produced the first image and he did indeed use it in his later work. D- Summary While many improvements in speed and image quality have been made since this early work, Lauterbur’s demonstration of two- dimensional imaging was a major spur to make MRI the valuable development to the medical field that it is today. Researchers are continuing to find new applications for diagnostic imaging and more exciting discoveries undoubtedly lie ahead. [[Media:Appendix A- Lauterbug Notes.doc]] [[Media:Appendix B - Lauterbur's First MRI Publication.doc]] [[Media:Appendix C - Varian A-60.doc]] [[Media:PLauterbur-1-.jpg|Appendix C - second page]] [[Media:Appendix D - p759-gordon.pdf]] [[Media:Appendix E - NY Times Article - Nobel Prize.doc]] What obstacles (technical, political, geographic) needed to be overcome? For Dr Lauterbur to do his experimental work ,he had to modify the Stony Brook University Chemistry Department's NMR spectrometer by adding gradient coils to he instrument .He had to do this after hours and return the instrument to its original state each time. The spectrometer was the Varian A 60. Other than that, he was able to try out his ideas that were expressed in his notes (Appendix A) and achieve his groundbreaking results. What features set this work apart from similar achievements? Prior to this work, only one dimensional NMR images had been realized by point by point techniques many years earlier. Once Dr Lauterbur showed that 2D images could be obtained ,faster and higher resolution images became a reality,mostly due to Mansfield at the University of Nottingham .Lauterbur and Mansfield shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2003 for their MRI research..Lauterbur's first images were a key achievement that contributed to making MRI what it is today. Supporting texts and citations to establish the dates, location, and importance of the achievement. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Minimum of five (5), but as many as needed to support the milestone, such as patents, contemporary newspaper articles, journal articles, or chapters in scholarly books. At least one of the references must be from a scholarly book or journal article. 'Scholarly' is defined as peer-reviewed, with references, and published. The full reference, in English, must be uploaded, not just the citation. See below section for details on uploading material to the website. All supporting materials must be in English, or accompanied by an English translation. Appendices A -E and a file-PLauterbur which have been uploaded and are referred to in the Historical Significance portion of this proposal.. Supporting materials (supported formats: GIF, JPEG, PNG, PDF, DOC) which can be made publicly available on the IEEE History Center’s website (i.e. unencumbered by copyright, or with the copyright holder’s permission). All supporting materials must be in English, or if not in English, accompanied by an English translation. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Images and photographs are especially appreciated, however, it is necessary that you list the copyright owner for these and obtain the copyright owner’s permission to reuse. For documents that are copyright-encumbered, or which you do not have rights to post, email the documents themselves to firstname.lastname@example.org. Please see the Milestone Program Guidelines for more information. To add attachments, first upload the file and add by adding the text: [[Media:(filename)]] For example, if the file you uploaded was named "Milestone Reference.pdf", include the text: [[Media:Milestone Reference.pdf]] in the appropriate field. Appendices A-E can be made publically available on the IEEE History Center's website. Please email a jpeg or PDF a letter in English, or with English translation, from the site owner(s) giving permission to place IEEE milestone plaque on the property, and a letter (or forwarded email) from the appropriate Section Chair supporting the Milestone application to email@example.com with the subject line "Attention: Milestone Administrator." Note that there are multiple texts of the letter depending on whether an IEEE organizational unit other than the section will be paying for the plaque(s). Submit this proposal to the IEEE History Committee for review. 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