Edit Proposal: Milestone-Proposal:The Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System You do not have permission to edit this page, for the following reason: You are not currently logged in. The action you have requested is limited to users in the group: Users. Please log in or create an account. Docket ID: (admins only) Thank you for proposing a technical achievement for possible recognition as an IEEE Milestone in Electrical Engineering and Computing. Your efforts help preserve the heritage of technology. Detailed information on the Milestone application process may be found at: Milestone Guidelines and How to Propose a Milestone. At least one of the proposer(s) must be an IEEE Member (including Student Member) in good standing. To the proposer’s knowledge, is this achievement subject to litigation? If the answer is "yes", the proposal cannot proceed further. Yes No You must be able to answer "yes" to all of the following questions. If the answer to any of the following questions is "no", the proposal cannot proceed further. Contact us at email@example.com if you are unable to answer "yes" to all of the following and would still like to proceed. Is the achievement you are proposing more than 25 years old? Yes No Is the achievement you are proposing within IEEE’s designated fields as defined by IEEE Bylaw I-104.11, namely: Engineering, Computer Sciences and Information Technology, Physical Sciences, Biological and Medical Sciences, Mathematics, Technical Communications, Education, Management, and Law and Policy. Yes No Did the achievement provide a meaningful benefit for humanity? Yes No Was it of at least regional importance? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to pay for the milestone plaque(s)? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to arrange the dedication ceremony? Yes No Has the IEEE Section in which the milestone is located agreed to take responsibility for the plaque after it is dedicated? Yes No Has the owner of the site given permission to place an IEEE plaque? Yes No Year or range of years in which the achievement occurred: Title of the proposed milestone. (Include date or date range in title. Example: “Alternating Current Electrification, 1886”) Please provide a plaque citation in English summarizing the achievement and its significance. Text absolutely limited by plaque dimensions to 70 words; 60 is preferable for aesthetic reasons. NOTE: The IEEE History Committee shall have final determination on the wording of the citation. Names of living persons are not normally used in citations. Exceptions to this are cases where the person's name is linked to the achievement itself (e.g. the Lempel-Ziv algorithm, Maxwell's Equations, etc.) or where the person's name is so widely recognizeable to the general public that it makes sense to use it. When used, the names should be the names of the engineers, scientists, or technologists who actually made the achievement, rather than managers or executives. For more information and suggestions about writing milestone citations, please visit Helpful Hints on Citations, Plaque Locations. On 11 April 1981, NASA formally accepted the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS) or Canadarm developed by SPAR Aerospace (now MDA Robotics) and the National Research Council of Canada. By providing the means to manipulate and transfer heavy payloads, support astronauts working outside, and conduct inspections and repairs, the SRMS revolutionized manned spaceflight and played a key role in the Shuttle program. (62 words) In what IEEE section(s) will the milestone plaque(s) reside? Please specify the IEEE Organizational Unit(s) which have agreed to sponsor the Milestone, and supply name and contact information for the senior officer from those OU(s). Sponsorship has three aspects: 1) Payment for the cost of the plaque(s), 2) Arranging the dedication ceremony, and 3) agreeing to monitor the plaque and to let IEEE History Center staff know in case the plaque needs to be moved, is no longer secure, etc. Number 3 must be done by the IEEE Section(s) in which the plaque(s) is located, but aspects 1 and 2 can be done by any IEEE Organizational Unit, and they need not be the same one. Please note: your email address and contact information will be masked on the website for privacy reasons. Only IEEE History Center Staff will be able to view the email address. IEEE Organizational Unit(s) paying for milestone plaque(s) Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE Organizational Unit(s) arranging the dedication ceremony Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE section(s) monitoring the plaque IEEE Section: IEEE Section Chair name: IEEE Section Chair e-mail: IEEE Section: IEEE Section Chair name: IEEE Section Chair e-mail: Milestone proposer(s) Proposer name: Proposer email: Proposer name: Proposer email: Street address(es) and GPS coordinates of the intended milestone plaque site(s). Please include coordinates in decimal format rather than degrees. What is the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s) relation to the achievement? The intended site(s) must have a direct connection with the achievement (e.g. where developed, invented, tested, demonstrated, installed, or operated, etc.). A museum where a device or example of the technology is displayed, or the university where the inventor studied, are not, in themselves, sufficient connection for a milestone plaque. Also, please Describe briefly the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s). (e.g. Is it corporate buildings? Historic Site? Residential? Are there other historical markers already at the site?) Are the original buildings extant? Please provide the details of the mounting, i.e. on the outside of the building, in the ground floor entrance hall, on a plinth on the grounds, etc. How is the intended plaque site protected/secured, and in what ways is it accessible to the public? If visitors to the plaque site will need to go through security, or make an appointment, please give details as well as the contact information visitors will need in order to arrange to visit the plaque. Who is the present owner of the site(s)? In the space below, please describe in detail: the historic significance of the achievement, its importance to the evolution of electrical and computer engineering and science, its importance to regional/national/international development, its benefits to humanity, the ways the achievement was a significant advance rather than an incremental improvement of existing technology. The material submitted here will constitute the main descriptive article on the ETHW website for readers to learn about the milestone. Space is unlimited, and detail is encouraged. Most milestones require 1000 to 1500 words of support, however there is no word limit. The article should be readable by a wide audience that includes practicing engineers, scholars of history, and the general public. Some examples of the text of good milestone articles are First Radio Astronomical Observations Using Very Long Baseline Interferometry] and G3_Facsimile International Standardization of G3 Facsimile (Do not worry about the formatting of the page, IEEE History Center Staff will do that afterwards.) What is the historical significance of the work (its technological, scientific, or social importance)? The Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS) or Canadarm was a joint venture between the governments of the United States and Canada that supplied NASA's Space Shuttle program with a robotic arm for the deployment/retrieval of space hardware from the payload bay of the shuttle orbiter. The Canadian proposal to design and build a robot arm was based on the efforts of DSMA Atcon, a small Canadian firm, to develop a robot arm used to load fuel into a nuclear reactor. Following briefings by NASA on the requirements for the SRMS, DSMA Atcon collaborated with SPAR, CAE Electronic and RCA (later SPAR Montreal) to draft a formal proposal. In July 1975, SPAR Aerospace was appointed the prime subcontractor to the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) for the Design, Development, Testing and Evaluation (DDT&E) of the manipulator arm system that the Canadian government would supply to NASA. In April 1981, the first SRMS was delivered to NASA at a cost of approximately $108 million to the Canadian government. The SRMS first flew in November 12, 1981 on STS-2, the second flight of Columbia. NASA subsequently ordered 4 additional Canadarms, one of which was lost in the Challenger accident. During its lifetime, the SRMS demonstrated extraordinary adaptability and success in a variety of applications ranging from satellite recovery and satellite servicing (including several high-profile Hubble Space Telescope servicing missions) to extravehicular activity support and spacecraft inspection. Its success guaranteed that Canada, Europe and Japan would pursue second-generation remote manipulator system projects for the International Space Station. Journal papers prepared by the National Research Council of Canada and SPAR Aerospace   capture the significance of this pioneering work from a contemporary perspective for a highly technical audience. The first paper focuses on the design and ground-based testing of the arm. The second paper focuses on space-based testing and operational achievements from its first flight aboard STS-2 in November 1981 until Mission 51-I in August 1985. Retrospective articles prepared by the Canadian Space Agency  and NASA  capture the significance of this pioneering work for a more general audience. What obstacles (technical, political, geographic) needed to be overcome? The SRMS was designed to manipulate large payloads, ranging from inspection tools to astronauts to satellites, in the vicinity of the Shuttle cargo bay. It was conceived as a robotic arm consisting of a shoulder, elbow and wrist joint separated by an upper and lower arm boom giving it a total of six degrees-of-freedom (shoulder pitch and yaw, elbow pitch and wrist pitch, yaw, and roll). It is divided into mechanical, electrical, thermal, displays and controls, software, computer, and vision subsystems. Approximately 15-metres long and weighing approximately 431 kg, the SRMS was capable of manoeuvring payloads of up to 14,515 kg at a rate of .06 m/sec with a maximum contingency operation payload weight of 265,810 kg. The SRMS was incapable of supporting its own weight on the ground and had to be supported by specialized ground handling equipment during its acceptance testing and shipment. Under unloaded conditions, the SRMS could achieve a maximum translational rate of 0.6 m/sec. While the SRMS could handle very heavy payloads, the computerized control system could also achieve a positional accuracy of +/- 5.0 cm and +/- 1.0-degree of a pre-programmed target zone at the previously mentioned rates and load conditions. Astronauts viewing images from TV cameras mounted at the elbow and wrist could use hand controllers to achieve similar accuracy. There are important physical differences between spaceborne systems and their terrestrial counterparts that arise from operation in free fall, in a vacuum, and in a harsh thermal environment, and the need to minimize mass. At the outset, it was clear that realizing a relatively lightweight but durable system that would satisfy difficult mechanical and reliability specifications in the harsh space environment would present significant challenges. When development of the SRMS began in 1975, designers had virtually no prior practice or experience to draw from. By 1994, AIAA was able to publish a 500-page contributed volume that provided important insights into the challenges faced and lessons learned based upon almost 20 years of both design and operational experience . Significant accomplishments of the SRMS program included development of: 1) structural models to support design of the SRMS structure given the challenging weight restrictions, 2) a vision subsystem to permit precise manual control given the challenging accuracy requirements, and 3) an end effector that could effectively grapple cooperative but massive and possibly unbalanced targets. The SRMS was designed to have a life of ten years or 100 missions. During the course of the 30-year Shuttle program, no SRMS failed in flight or failed to achieve a mission objective. What features set this work apart from similar achievements? The SRMS was not the first robotic arm to be used in a space environment. The Surveyor landers sent to the moon in 1966-68 and the Viking landers sent to Mars in 1976 incorporated robotic arms for testing soil mechanics, digging trenches, and scooping soil samples. However, the SRMS was the first space robotic arm to be designed and used for on-orbit servicing tasks such as docking, berthing, refuelling, repairing, upgrading, transporting, rescuing, and orbital debris removal. Its extraordinary adaptability and success in performing such tasks are almost unprecedented for a first-generation system. The SRMS effectively rendered otherwise successful contemporary systems intended to support such tasks, including the much anticipated Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU), redundant and unnecessary. The experience gained and lessons learned from the SRMS (Canadarm) prepared the way for follow-on space manipulator projects such as Canada's Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator (SPDM or Dextre) and Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS or Canadarm 2), the Japanese Experiment Module Remote Manipulator System (JEMRMS), the European Robotic Arm (ERA), and Germany's Robot Technology Experiment (ROTEX) and Robotics Component Verification on the ISS experiment (ROKVISS)   . Supporting texts and citations to establish the dates, location, and importance of the achievement. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Minimum of five (5), but as many as needed to support the milestone, such as patents, contemporary newspaper articles, journal articles, or chapters in scholarly books. At least one of the references must be from a scholarly book or journal article. 'Scholarly' is defined as peer-reviewed, with references, and published. The full reference, in English, must be uploaded, not just the citation. See below section for details on uploading material to the website. All supporting materials must be in English, or accompanied by an English translation.  B. A. Aikenhead, R. G. Danieli and F. M. Davis, "Canadarm and the space shuttle," Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 126-132, Apr.-June 1983.  S. S. Sachdev, "Canadarm - a review of its flights," Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 268-272, May.-June 1986.  Canadarm - Historic First Moves, Canadian Space Agency, 7 Nov. 2011. [Online]. Available: http://www.asc-csa.gc.ca/eng/canadarm/beginning.asp 7 Nov 2011  "Space Shuttle Canadarm Robotic Arm Marks 25 Years in Space, NASA, 9 Nov,. 2006. [Online]. Available: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/behindscenes/rms_anniversary.html  S. B. Skaar and C. F. Ruoff, Eds., "Teleoperation and Robotics in Space," Washington, DC: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1994, 493, pp.  R. Rembala and C. Ower, "Robotic assembly and maintenance of future space stations based on the ISS mission operations experience," Acta Astronautica, vol. 65, pp. 912–920, 2009.  A. Flores-Abad, O. Ma, K. Pham, and S. Ulrich, "A review of space robotics technologies for on-orbit servicing," Progress in Aerospace Sciences, vol. 68, pp. 1-26, 2014. Supporting materials (supported formats: GIF, JPEG, PNG, PDF, DOC) which can be made publicly available on the IEEE History Center’s website (i.e. unencumbered by copyright, or with the copyright holder’s permission). All supporting materials must be in English, or if not in English, accompanied by an English translation. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Images and photographs are especially appreciated, however, it is necessary that you list the copyright owner for these and obtain the copyright owner’s permission to reuse. For documents that are copyright-encumbered, or which you do not have rights to post, email the documents themselves to firstname.lastname@example.org. Please see the Milestone Program Guidelines for more information. To add attachments, first upload the file and add by adding the text: [[Media:(filename)]] For example, if the file you uploaded was named "Milestone Reference.pdf", include the text: [[Media:Milestone Reference.pdf]] in the appropriate field. Please email a jpeg or PDF a letter in English, or with English translation, from the site owner(s) giving permission to place IEEE milestone plaque on the property, and a letter (or forwarded email) from the appropriate Section Chair supporting the Milestone application to email@example.com with the subject line "Attention: Milestone Administrator." Note that there are multiple texts of the letter depending on whether an IEEE organizational unit other than the section will be paying for the plaque(s). Submit this proposal to the IEEE History Committee for review. Only check this when the proposal is finished Summary: This is a minor edit Watch this page Cancel Retrieved from "http://ieeemilestones.ethw.org/Milestone-Proposal:The_Space_Shuttle_Remote_Manipulator_System"