Edit Proposal: Milestone-Proposal:Self-regulating Trace Heater You do not have permission to edit this page, for the following reason: You are not currently logged in. The action you have requested is limited to users in the group: Users. Please log in or create an account. Docket ID: (admins only) Thank you for proposing a technical achievement for possible recognition as an IEEE Milestone in Electrical Engineering and Computing. Your efforts help preserve the heritage of technology. Detailed information on the Milestone application process may be found at: Milestone Guidelines and How to Propose a Milestone. At least one of the proposer(s) must be an IEEE Member (including Student Member) in good standing. To the proposer’s knowledge, is this achievement subject to litigation? If the answer is "yes", the proposal cannot proceed further. Yes No You must be able to answer "yes" to all of the following questions. If the answer to any of the following questions is "no", the proposal cannot proceed further. Contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org if you are unable to answer "yes" to all of the following and would still like to proceed. Is the achievement you are proposing more than 25 years old? Yes No Is the achievement you are proposing within IEEE’s designated fields as defined by IEEE Bylaw I-104.11, namely: Engineering, Computer Sciences and Information Technology, Physical Sciences, Biological and Medical Sciences, Mathematics, Technical Communications, Education, Management, and Law and Policy. Yes No Did the achievement provide a meaningful benefit for humanity? Yes No Was it of at least regional importance? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to pay for the milestone plaque(s)? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to arrange the dedication ceremony? Yes No Has the IEEE Section in which the milestone is located agreed to take responsibility for the plaque after it is dedicated? Yes No Has the owner of the site given permission to place an IEEE plaque? Yes No Year or range of years in which the achievement occurred: Title of the proposed milestone. (Include date or date range in title. Example: “Alternating Current Electrification, 1886”) Please provide a plaque citation in English summarizing the achievement and its significance. Text absolutely limited by plaque dimensions to 70 words; 60 is preferable for aesthetic reasons. NOTE: The IEEE History Committee shall have final determination on the wording of the citation. Names of living persons are not normally used in citations. Exceptions to this are cases where the person's name is linked to the achievement itself (e.g. the Lempel-Ziv algorithm, Maxwell's Equations, etc.) or where the person's name is so widely recognizeable to the general public that it makes sense to use it. When used, the names should be the names of the engineers, scientists, or technologists who actually made the achievement, rather than managers or executives. For more information and suggestions about writing milestone citations, please visit Helpful Hints on Citations, Plaque Locations. In 1972, Raychem Corporation patented and began producing the first commercially successful electric self-regulating heat-tracing cable. The conductive polymer in this cable revolutionized the temperature maintenance of process piping, which has had major applications in refineries and chemical plants, and made freeze protection of water pipes simple and energy efficient. By 2008, the firm had manufactured and sold one billion feet of this cable. In what IEEE section(s) will the milestone plaque(s) reside? Please specify the IEEE Organizational Unit(s) which have agreed to sponsor the Milestone, and supply name and contact information for the senior officer from those OU(s). Sponsorship has three aspects: 1) Payment for the cost of the plaque(s), 2) Arranging the dedication ceremony, and 3) agreeing to monitor the plaque and to let IEEE History Center staff know in case the plaque needs to be moved, is no longer secure, etc. Number 3 must be done by the IEEE Section(s) in which the plaque(s) is located, but aspects 1 and 2 can be done by any IEEE Organizational Unit, and they need not be the same one. Please note: your email address and contact information will be masked on the website for privacy reasons. Only IEEE History Center Staff will be able to view the email address. IEEE Organizational Unit(s) paying for milestone plaque(s) Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE Organizational Unit(s) arranging the dedication ceremony Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE section(s) monitoring the plaque IEEE Section: IEEE Section Chair name: IEEE Section Chair e-mail: IEEE Section: IEEE Section Chair name: IEEE Section Chair e-mail: Milestone proposer(s) Proposer name: Proposer email: Street address(es) and GPS coordinates of the intended milestone plaque site(s). Please include coordinates in decimal format rather than degrees. What is the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s) relation to the achievement? The intended site(s) must have a direct connection with the achievement (e.g. where developed, invented, tested, demonstrated, installed, or operated, etc.). A museum where a device or example of the technology is displayed, or the university where the inventor studied, are not, in themselves, sufficient connection for a milestone plaque. Also, please Describe briefly the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s). (e.g. Is it corporate buildings? Historic Site? Residential? Are there other historical markers already at the site?) Are the original buildings extant? Please provide the details of the mounting, i.e. on the outside of the building, in the ground floor entrance hall, on a plinth on the grounds, etc. How is the intended plaque site protected/secured, and in what ways is it accessible to the public? If visitors to the plaque site will need to go through security, or make an appointment, please give details as well as the contact information visitors will need in order to arrange to visit the plaque. Who is the present owner of the site(s)? In the space below, please describe in detail: the historic significance of the achievement, its importance to the evolution of electrical and computer engineering and science, its importance to regional/national/international development, its benefits to humanity, the ways the achievement was a significant advance rather than an incremental improvement of existing technology. The material submitted here will constitute the main descriptive article on the ETHW website for readers to learn about the milestone. Space is unlimited, and detail is encouraged. Most milestones require 1000 to 1500 words of support, however there is no word limit. The article should be readable by a wide audience that includes practicing engineers, scholars of history, and the general public. Some examples of the text of good milestone articles are First Radio Astronomical Observations Using Very Long Baseline Interferometry] and G3_Facsimile International Standardization of G3 Facsimile (Do not worry about the formatting of the page, IEEE History Center Staff will do that afterwards.) What is the historical significance of the work (its technological, scientific, or social importance)? Electrical heating has many aspects including less energy use and tighter temperature control that make it the choice for heating process pipes and freeze protection. Two notable deficiencies are corrected by the parallel circuit self-regulating heaters invented by Raychem in 1972. The heaters are cut to length in the field and won’t easily burn out unlike constant wattage heaters. Historically electrical trace heaters were constant wattage series circuit and the resistance had to be factory determined and fabricated. The key electrical achievement is making a parallel circuit heater by putting a nano carbon black matrix in a polymer between bus wires making a distributed semiconducting positive temperature coefficient resistor. Specific carbon blacks and polymers create a resistance path between the bus wires and the polymer matrix expands through the polymer’s crystalline melt temperature, separating the carbon paths. Thus the resistance goes up. At each section the temperature of the polymer controls the expansion and one has essentially an infinite number of “thermostats” controlling that segment of the circuit. A key for repeatability is radiation crosslinking the polymer so when the matrix cools back below the crystalline melt temperature, the resistance goes back down to original resistance allowing more current to flow and the I^2R (current squared times resistance) heating. The picture below shows an illustration of the process. [[Image:Self- rEgulation Heater.jpeg]] The idea of conductive polymers was in its infancy and researchers at Raychem looked at silicones and polyolefins as a possible matrix with carbon black infused into the matrix for conductivity. Radiation chemistry was critical to the repeatability of the heating cooling system as shown in the IEEE paper in this package. The circuit was elegant, parallel wires with a positive temperature coefficient matrix between the wires. What you had was basically a distributed temperature sensor controlling each section of the heater independently. The product was also cut to length in the field. The solution in 1971 for heating pipes was MI Cable which was manufactured to a specific length in a factory. As one would expect, the field as built piping was never quite the drawing estimates and returns for a different length were common. Today the vast majority of electrical trace heating is now done by self-regulating heaters with over 10 manufacturers all over the world making this type of heating cable. By 2007, over a billion feet of the self-regulating heater was manufactured in the building proposed for the installation of the IEEE Milestone Plaque. What obstacles (technical, political, geographic) needed to be overcome? Conductive polymer PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient) tests were made by loading polymers with conductive elements, usually metal powders or carbon black. The resistance change was one way, the resistance went up and never came back. This was solved by radiation crosslinking the polymer which "pulled" the polymer back to the original shape when the temperature decreased. Radiation crosslinking was the secrete. What features set this work apart from similar achievements? No conductive polymer had ever been able to cycle to different temperatures and return to its original resistance. Supporting texts and citations to establish the dates, location, and importance of the achievement. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Minimum of five (5), but as many as needed to support the milestone, such as patents, contemporary newspaper articles, journal articles, or chapters in scholarly books. At least one of the references must be from a scholarly book or journal article. 'Scholarly' is defined as peer-reviewed, with references, and published. The full reference, in English, must be uploaded, not just the citation. See below section for details on uploading material to the website. All supporting materials must be in English, or accompanied by an English translation. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. IA-9, NO. 4, JULY/AUGUST 1973 Some Aspects of a Self-Limiting Resistive Electric Heating Element JOSEPH A. OAKES AND CHET L. SANDBERG US 3861029 AutoTrace Patent IEEE 515 Standard for the Testing, Design, Installation, and Maintenance of Electrical Resistance Heat Tracing for Industrial Applications 1997 TYCO THERMAL CONTROLS CELEBRATES AN INDUSTRY FIRST - One Billion Feet of Raychem Self-Regulating Heat-Tracing Cable Manufactured and Sold March 14, 2008 1972 AutoTrace brochure 72 Supporting materials (supported formats: GIF, JPEG, PNG, PDF, DOC) which can be made publicly available on the IEEE History Center’s website (i.e. unencumbered by copyright, or with the copyright holder’s permission). All supporting materials must be in English, or if not in English, accompanied by an English translation. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Images and photographs are especially appreciated, however, it is necessary that you list the copyright owner for these and obtain the copyright owner’s permission to reuse. For documents that are copyright-encumbered, or which you do not have rights to post, email the documents themselves to email@example.com. Please see the Milestone Program Guidelines for more information. To add attachments, first upload the file and add by adding the text: [[Media:(filename)]] For example, if the file you uploaded was named "Milestone Reference.pdf", include the text: [[Media:Milestone Reference.pdf]] in the appropriate field. [[Media:US3861029 Autotrace.pdf|One of first self-regulating patents]] [[Media:PES-IAS-Calgary-Seminar-Rev-6 Hulett.pdf|Presentation showing IEEE 515 and 844 standards. These are industry created standards supporting a critical technology for Process Plants, Snow Melting, Freeze protection of piping. All the self-regulating technologies help save many Megawatt hours of energy use every year. ]] [[Media:IEEE 1991 Paper 1 Transadtions.pdf|IEEE Transactions Paper, Lardear]] [[Media:Heat tracing Market Forecast 2017.pdf|Market forecast showing Self-regulating is the most used electrical heat tracing]] [[Media:First Autotrace Paper.pdf|IEEE 1972 Self-Regulating Paper by Oakes and Sandberg describing Technology]] [[Media:Billion Ft Press Release - FINAL.pdf|Press Release for 1 Billion Feet]] [[Media:US3793716.pdf ]] Please email a jpeg or PDF a letter in English, or with English translation, from the site owner(s) giving permission to place IEEE milestone plaque on the property, and a letter (or forwarded email) from the appropriate Section Chair supporting the Milestone application to firstname.lastname@example.org with the subject line "Attention: Milestone Administrator." Note that there are multiple texts of the letter depending on whether an IEEE organizational unit other than the section will be paying for the plaque(s). Submit this proposal to the IEEE History Committee for review. Only check this when the proposal is finished Summary: This is a minor edit Watch this page Cancel Retrieved from "http://ieeemilestones.ethw.org/Milestone-Proposal:Self-regulating_Trace_Heater"