Edit Proposal: Milestone-Proposal:Neutrodyne Circuit, 1922 You do not have permission to edit this page, for the following reason: You are not currently logged in. The action you have requested is limited to users in the group: Users. Please log in or create an account. Docket ID: (admins only) Thank you for proposing a technical achievement for possible recognition as an IEEE Milestone in Electrical Engineering and Computing. Your efforts help preserve the heritage of technology. Detailed information on the Milestone application process may be found at: Milestone Guidelines and How to Propose a Milestone. At least one of the proposer(s) must be an IEEE Member (including Student Member) in good standing. To the proposer’s knowledge, is this achievement subject to litigation? If the answer is "yes", the proposal cannot proceed further. Yes No You must be able to answer "yes" to all of the following questions. If the answer to any of the following questions is "no", the proposal cannot proceed further. Contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org if you are unable to answer "yes" to all of the following and would still like to proceed. Is the achievement you are proposing more than 25 years old? Yes No Is the achievement you are proposing within IEEE’s designated fields as defined by IEEE Bylaw I-104.11, namely: Engineering, Computer Sciences and Information Technology, Physical Sciences, Biological and Medical Sciences, Mathematics, Technical Communications, Education, Management, and Law and Policy. Yes No Did the achievement provide a meaningful benefit for humanity? Yes No Was it of at least regional importance? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to pay for the milestone plaque(s)? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to arrange the dedication ceremony? Yes No Has the IEEE Section in which the milestone is located agreed to take responsibility for the plaque after it is dedicated? Yes No Has the owner of the site given permission to place an IEEE plaque? Yes No Year or range of years in which the achievement occurred: Title of the proposed milestone. (Include date or date range in title. Example: “Alternating Current Electrification, 1886”) Please provide a plaque citation in English summarizing the achievement and its significance. Text absolutely limited by plaque dimensions to 70 words; 60 is preferable for aesthetic reasons. NOTE: The IEEE History Committee shall have final determination on the wording of the citation. Names of living persons are not normally used in citations. Exceptions to this are cases where the person's name is linked to the achievement itself (e.g. the Lempel-Ziv algorithm, Maxwell's Equations, etc.) or where the person's name is so widely recognizeable to the general public that it makes sense to use it. When used, the names should be the names of the engineers, scientists, or technologists who actually made the achievement, rather than managers or executives. For more information and suggestions about writing milestone citations, please visit Helpful Hints on Citations, Plaque Locations. The Neutrodyne Circuit, invented near this site in 1922, used neutralizing capacitors to eliminate squeals from parasitic oscillation that plagued early radios. Improved clarity of reception and easier tuning facilitated broader radio adoption by the general public. Multiple manufacturers licensed the circuit to make affordable consumer products, expanding the marketplace from amateur radio operators into a mass consumer market for news, information, music, and culture. In what IEEE section(s) will the milestone plaque(s) reside? Please specify the IEEE Organizational Unit(s) which have agreed to sponsor the Milestone, and supply name and contact information for the senior officer from those OU(s). Sponsorship has three aspects: 1) Payment for the cost of the plaque(s), 2) Arranging the dedication ceremony, and 3) agreeing to monitor the plaque and to let IEEE History Center staff know in case the plaque needs to be moved, is no longer secure, etc. Number 3 must be done by the IEEE Section(s) in which the plaque(s) is located, but aspects 1 and 2 can be done by any IEEE Organizational Unit, and they need not be the same one. Please note: your email address and contact information will be masked on the website for privacy reasons. Only IEEE History Center Staff will be able to view the email address. 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A museum where a device or example of the technology is displayed, or the university where the inventor studied, are not, in themselves, sufficient connection for a milestone plaque. Also, please Describe briefly the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s). (e.g. Is it corporate buildings? Historic Site? Residential? Are there other historical markers already at the site?) Are the original buildings extant? Please provide the details of the mounting, i.e. on the outside of the building, in the ground floor entrance hall, on a plinth on the grounds, etc. How is the intended plaque site protected/secured, and in what ways is it accessible to the public? If visitors to the plaque site will need to go through security, or make an appointment, please give details as well as the contact information visitors will need in order to arrange to visit the plaque. Who is the present owner of the site(s)? In the space below, please describe in detail: the historic significance of the achievement, its importance to the evolution of electrical and computer engineering and science, its importance to regional/national/international development, its benefits to humanity, the ways the achievement was a significant advance rather than an incremental improvement of existing technology. The material submitted here will constitute the main descriptive article on the ETHW website for readers to learn about the milestone. Space is unlimited, and detail is encouraged. Most milestones require 1000 to 1500 words of support, however there is no word limit. The article should be readable by a wide audience that includes practicing engineers, scholars of history, and the general public. Some examples of the text of good milestone articles are First Radio Astronomical Observations Using Very Long Baseline Interferometry] and G3_Facsimile International Standardization of G3 Facsimile (Do not worry about the formatting of the page, IEEE History Center Staff will do that afterwards.) What is the historical significance of the work (its technological, scientific, or social importance)? [[File:Wheeler Radio0076.jpg|thumb]] [[File:RCA1923RadiolaTheJewel.jpg|thumb]] [[File:First neutrodyne radio receiver-Columbia.jpg|thumb]] [[File:RCA1923.jpg|thumb]] [[Image:HowAnglesNeutrodyneGiveZeroMagneticCoupling.jpg|thumb]] [[Image:EdwinHowardArmstrong-Insights-Poster-20180609 160005.jpg|thumb]] The Neutrodyne Circuit invented on this site in 1922 in the Navy Building in the laboratory of Professor Louis Alan Hazeltine with Harold A Wheeler and others, enabled affordably easier to tune radios and neutralized capacitors eliminating squeals from parasitic oscillation previously plaguing radio receivers and amplifiers. These improvements in performance and simplicity rapidly expanded radio use from amateur radio operators to usher in a mass communication consumer market. In 1923, 500 stations were broadcasting to about two million listeners; Neutrodyne was licensed to 20 manufacturers, expanded ownership by 10 million affordable radios, an increase from 10 to 60% of the population of North America and impact on how individuals receive information, music and culture – transforming opportunities for everyone – with enduring effects evident in our everyday lives. Many have noted the inspiration of Professor Armstrong and his more expensive RCA solutions; what is important to note about this 'inspiration' and the unique Neutrodyne solution, is that the Neutrodyne team sought specifically to Democratize access to Technology which serves Humanity. Radio Democratized Politics and so many other opportunities. The Neutrodyne team quickly provided licenses to 20 companies rather than to create a complex expensive solution as RCA chose to do. Armstrong's super heterodyne and regenerative circuits solution for RCA was kept proprietary and expensive, which created disparity between wealthy and everybody else. Because of Neutrodyne, in 1923 and 1924 the entire product line proposed by RCA was halted (proposed product catalog included in references) and the Chicago Radio Show offered many new more affordable products creating opportunities for businesses, broadcasters, stimulating commerce, consumers, regular people for the very first time. In this way for the first time, regular people all over North America had access to Politics of the day, became educated about many things, heard music, entertainment, learned about the latest news, etc. Previously, only 10 percent of the population had access. With Neutrodyne, in three years, 60 percent had access. Mass communication. Not just for the wealthy. Regular people could learn and hear politics of their day and engage in the culture of their time in a meaningful way. This was a major transformative influence on society lasting to the present time. In the autumn of 1922, Prof Alan Hazeltine designed a receiver using a Tuned Radio Frequency amplifier. Joseph Freed of the Freed-Eisemann Radio Corp. built the first model from plans supplied by Hazeltine. Hazeltine demonstrated the receiver on 2 March 1923 at a meeting of the Radio Club of America at Columbia University, New York City. Patent US1450080 issued to Hazeltine on 27 March 1923, and Hazeltine Corporation stock began trading on 1 February 1924 on the Curb Exchange (now the AMEX). [[File:Neutrodyne_Receiver.jpg|200px|thumb|right|A Hazeltine Neutrodyne receiver]] The Neutrodyne was a ''circuit with an extra capacitor and two coils, which could completely stabilize a radio frequency amplifier. The circuit was usually designed with three tuned circuits and three dials, including two stages of radio frequency (RF) amplification and a tuned detector. Since a nonregenerative detector was used, the circuit was free of patent infringement.'' ''To reduce magnetic coupling between the tuning coils, the three coils were assembled at a critical angle, mathematically derived by Hazeltine as 54.7 degrees. The three dials and the coils at this angle identified a 'Neutrodyne' receiver. The first sets were produced by Freed-Eisemann Radio Corporation in 1923, and soon there were a number of licensees paying royalties to Hazeltine. He founded a research and consulting service, and was President of the IRE (Institute of Radio Engineers) in 1936'' -- John Ryder and Donald Fink, ''Engineers & Electrons'', 1984, IEEE Press, p 76 <br><br>Detail of [https://ethw.org/File:Neutrodyne_Receiver_detail.jpg receiver with Hazeltine stamp]<br><br> Detail of receiver showing [https://ethw.org/File:Neutrodyne_Receiver_detail_of_dials.jpg Dials] What obstacles (technical, political, geographic) needed to be overcome? ''To increase the ability of their [radio] receivers to pick up long-distance signals, some manufacturers included a stage of amplification ahead of the regenerative detector circuit. This made the circuit adjustment even more critical than in the regenerative detector alone, as internal feedback of signal allowed the first amplifier to become a potential oscillator, producing more receiver squeals''-- John Ryder and Donald Fink, ''Engineers & Electrons'', 1984, IEEE Press, p. 76 In particular, the majority of radio work was theoretical and Professor Hazeltine employed experimental processes to determine angles and frequencies resulting in the reduction of parasitic oscillation, also creating a 'standard' for the industry. Devices could be manufactured inexpensively because of the coil design and standard configurations. Elegant and excellent solutions utilizing experimental techniques not previously employed in the field. What features set this work apart from similar achievements? Prior to the invention of the Neutrodyne Circuit, radio receivers were extremely difficult to tune. This was due to an amplifier placed before the regenerative detector circuit which, when tuned incorrectly, would begin to oscillate and produce receiver “squeals”. The “Super Heterodyne” solved this problem, but RCA’s monopoly on the solution made implementing the technology prohibitively expensive for most amateur radio operators. Unlike most radio receivers of the day, the Neutrodyne Circuit utilized an extra capacitor and two coils. Unlike the Super Heterodyne, the Neutrodyne leveraged a nonregenerative detector, so it did not infringe on RCA’s intellectual property. Additionally, to reduce magnetic coupling between the two capacitors, the capacitors in a Neutrodyne are placed at 54.7 degree angles. These distinct features produced radio receivers that could be easily tuned and did not require extensive training to operate. Hazeltine then licensed this technology to 20 different radio manufacturers. This meant that Neutrodyne receivers could be mass produced and sold at a price that was accessible to the average American. Due to the ease of operation and affordable price of Neutrodyne receivers, consumer radio ownership grew from 10% of Americans in 1923 to 60% in 1927. This unique combination meant the Neutrodyne circuit brought radio technology to the masses. Supporting texts and citations to establish the dates, location, and importance of the achievement. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Minimum of five (5), but as many as needed to support the milestone, such as patents, contemporary newspaper articles, journal articles, or chapters in scholarly books. At least one of the references must be from a scholarly book or journal article. 'Scholarly' is defined as peer-reviewed, with references, and published. The full reference, in English, must be uploaded, not just the citation. See below section for details on uploading material to the website. All supporting materials must be in English, or accompanied by an English translation. 1) Hazeltine, L. A., "Tuned Radio-Frequency Amplification with Neutralization of Capacity Coupling," (a paper presented before the Radio Club of America), ''QST,'' 2 March 1923 2) Dreyer, J. F., "How to Build a Neutrodyne Set," ''Popular Science Monthly,'' March 1924, pp 73, 1546-149 3) Dodds, Lawrence B., "Louis Hazeltine--A Human Professor," ''Stevens Indicator'', Fall 1979/Winter1980 pg 19. 4) [https://law.justia.com/cases/federal/district-courts/F2/21/643/1510208/ Hazeltine Corporation v. AH Grebe & Co.] 21 F.2d643 (E.D.N.Y. 1927) 5) [https://law.justia.com/cases/federal/district-courts/F2/52/504/1500119/ Hazeltine Corporation v. Radio Corporation of America,] 42 F.2d 504 (S.D.N.Y.) 6) Molnar, Mike, "Hazeltine, the Neutrodyne, and the Hazeltine Corporation," ''Antique Wireless Association Review'', 2013, Vol. 26 (a copy of this article is on file at the History Center for reference by the proposers and the advocate) 7) Ryder, John and Fink, Donald, ''Engineers & Electrons'', 1984 IEEE Press, pg 76. (The entire book is online at the URL below) 8) [https://ethw.org/File:US1450080_Hazeltine_Neutrodyne_Patent.pdf US1450080 Hazeltine's Neutrodyne Patent] issued 27 March 1923 9) Wheeler, Harold A. ''Hazeltine the Professor'', 1978, Greenlawn, N.Y. 10) Wheeler, Harold Alden, ''The Early Days of Wheeler and Hazeltine Corporation -- Profiles in Radio and Electronics," 1982, Greenlawn, N.Y. Supporting materials (supported formats: GIF, JPEG, PNG, PDF, DOC) which can be made publicly available on the IEEE History Center’s website (i.e. unencumbered by copyright, or with the copyright holder’s permission). All supporting materials must be in English, or if not in English, accompanied by an English translation. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Images and photographs are especially appreciated, however, it is necessary that you list the copyright owner for these and obtain the copyright owner’s permission to reuse. For documents that are copyright-encumbered, or which you do not have rights to post, email the documents themselves to email@example.com. Please see the Milestone Program Guidelines for more information. To add attachments, first upload the file and add by adding the text: [[Media:(filename)]] For example, if the file you uploaded was named "Milestone Reference.pdf", include the text: [[Media:Milestone Reference.pdf]] in the appropriate field. [[Image:RCA1922RadiolaXIISuperba.jpg|thumb]] [http://ieeemilestones.ethw.org/File:Hazeltine_article_on_Neutrodyne_Receiver.pdf Hazeltine, L. A., "The Neutrodyne Receiver", 1923 ''The Stute''] [[Media:NRI-Lesson-20-Neutrodyne-Receiver.pdf|National Radio Institute - The Neutrodyne Receiver]] [https://ethw.org/w/images/c/cc/Engineers_%26_Electrons.pdf Ryder, John and Fink, Donald, ''Engineers & Electrons'', 1984 IEEE Press, pg 76.] [https://ethw.org/Alan_Hazeltine Biography of Alan Hazeltine] [https://youtu.be/HaqqXZbNrJU IEEE Showcase - Futurecast - Neutrodyne Milestone Video] [[Media:ElectionRadioSoundBites-DemocratizingPolitics-1924.pdf|"Speeches Must Be Short: Radio and the Birth of the Modern Presidential Campaign"]], Pacific Standard, Oct 2 2012 [[Media:AntiqueRadioClassified-1999-RCAandPricelist1923.pdf|"RCA's Intended Models for the 1923-1924 Season "What Might Have Been"]], Antique Radio Classified, June 1999 Please email a jpeg or PDF a letter in English, or with English translation, from the site owner(s) giving permission to place IEEE milestone plaque on the property, and a letter (or forwarded email) from the appropriate Section Chair supporting the Milestone application to firstname.lastname@example.org with the subject line "Attention: Milestone Administrator." Note that there are multiple texts of the letter depending on whether an IEEE organizational unit other than the section will be paying for the plaque(s). Submit this proposal to the IEEE History Committee for review. Only check this when the proposal is finished Summary: This is a minor edit Watch this page Cancel Retrieved from "http://ieeemilestones.ethw.org/Milestone-Proposal:Neutrodyne_Circuit,_1922"