Edit Proposal: Milestone-Proposal:Milestone pacinotti You do not have permission to edit this page, for the following reason: You are not currently logged in. The action you have requested is limited to users in the group: Users. Please log in or create an account. Docket ID: (admins only) Thank you for proposing a technical achievement for possible recognition as an IEEE Milestone in Electrical Engineering and Computing. Your efforts help preserve the heritage of technology. Detailed information on the Milestone application process may be found at: Milestone Guidelines and How to Propose a Milestone. At least one of the proposer(s) must be an IEEE Member (including Student Member) in good standing. To the proposer’s knowledge, is this achievement subject to litigation? If the answer is "yes", the proposal cannot proceed further. Yes No You must be able to answer "yes" to all of the following questions. If the answer to any of the following questions is "no", the proposal cannot proceed further. Contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org if you are unable to answer "yes" to all of the following and would still like to proceed. Is the achievement you are proposing more than 25 years old? Yes No Is the achievement you are proposing within IEEE’s designated fields as defined by IEEE Bylaw I-104.11, namely: Engineering, Computer Sciences and Information Technology, Physical Sciences, Biological and Medical Sciences, Mathematics, Technical Communications, Education, Management, and Law and Policy. Yes No Did the achievement provide a meaningful benefit for humanity? Yes No Was it of at least regional importance? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to pay for the milestone plaque(s)? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to arrange the dedication ceremony? Yes No Has the IEEE Section in which the milestone is located agreed to take responsibility for the plaque after it is dedicated? Yes No Has the owner of the site given permission to place an IEEE plaque? Yes No Year or range of years in which the achievement occurred: Title of the proposed milestone. (Include date or date range in title. Example: “Alternating Current Electrification, 1886”) Please provide a plaque citation in English summarizing the achievement and its significance. Text absolutely limited by plaque dimensions to 70 words; 60 is preferable for aesthetic reasons. NOTE: The IEEE History Committee shall have final determination on the wording of the citation. Names of living persons are not normally used in citations. Exceptions to this are cases where the person's name is linked to the achievement itself (e.g. the Lempel-Ziv algorithm, Maxwell's Equations, etc.) or where the person's name is so widely recognizeable to the general public that it makes sense to use it. When used, the names should be the names of the engineers, scientists, or technologists who actually made the achievement, rather than managers or executives. For more information and suggestions about writing milestone citations, please visit Helpful Hints on Citations, Plaque Locations. A dynamo with a slotted ring armature, described and built at the University of Pisa by Antonio Pacinotti, was a significant step leading to practical electrical machines for direct current. Groups of turns of the closed winding were connected to the bars of a commutator. The machine worked as a motor also. In what IEEE section(s) will the milestone plaque(s) reside? Please specify the IEEE Organizational Unit(s) which have agreed to sponsor the Milestone, and supply name and contact information for the senior officer from those OU(s). Sponsorship has three aspects: 1) Payment for the cost of the plaque(s), 2) Arranging the dedication ceremony, and 3) agreeing to monitor the plaque and to let IEEE History Center staff know in case the plaque needs to be moved, is no longer secure, etc. Number 3 must be done by the IEEE Section(s) in which the plaque(s) is located, but aspects 1 and 2 can be done by any IEEE Organizational Unit, and they need not be the same one. Please note: your email address and contact information will be masked on the website for privacy reasons. Only IEEE History Center Staff will be able to view the email address. IEEE Organizational Unit(s) paying for milestone plaque(s) Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE Organizational Unit(s) arranging the dedication ceremony Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE section(s) monitoring the plaque IEEE Section: IEEE Section Chair name: IEEE Section Chair e-mail: IEEE Section: IEEE Section Chair name: IEEE Section Chair e-mail: Milestone proposer(s) Proposer name: Proposer email: Proposer name: Proposer email: Proposer name: Proposer email: Street address(es) and GPS coordinates of the intended milestone plaque site(s). Please include coordinates in decimal format rather than degrees. What is the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s) relation to the achievement? The intended site(s) must have a direct connection with the achievement (e.g. where developed, invented, tested, demonstrated, installed, or operated, etc.). A museum where a device or example of the technology is displayed, or the university where the inventor studied, are not, in themselves, sufficient connection for a milestone plaque. Also, please Describe briefly the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s). (e.g. Is it corporate buildings? Historic Site? Residential? Are there other historical markers already at the site?) Are the original buildings extant? Please provide the details of the mounting, i.e. on the outside of the building, in the ground floor entrance hall, on a plinth on the grounds, etc. How is the intended plaque site protected/secured, and in what ways is it accessible to the public? If visitors to the plaque site will need to go through security, or make an appointment, please give details as well as the contact information visitors will need in order to arrange to visit the plaque. Who is the present owner of the site(s)? In the space below, please describe in detail: the historic significance of the achievement, its importance to the evolution of electrical and computer engineering and science, its importance to regional/national/international development, its benefits to humanity, the ways the achievement was a significant advance rather than an incremental improvement of existing technology. The material submitted here will constitute the main descriptive article on the ETHW website for readers to learn about the milestone. Space is unlimited, and detail is encouraged. Most milestones require 1000 to 1500 words of support, however there is no word limit. The article should be readable by a wide audience that includes practicing engineers, scholars of history, and the general public. Some examples of the text of good milestone articles are First Radio Astronomical Observations Using Very Long Baseline Interferometry] and G3_Facsimile International Standardization of G3 Facsimile (Do not worry about the formatting of the page, IEEE History Center Staff will do that afterwards.) What is the historical significance of the work (its technological, scientific, or social importance)? Antonio Pacinotti (1841-1912) learned the principles of electromagnetism in his youth and under the direction of his father, Luigi Pacinotti, Professor of Technological Physics at University of Pisa. Then, early in 1859, he began to develop and build an electromagnetic machine with transverse electromagnet which was the basis of the invention of the Direct Current generator or dynamo. Later he stopped the project because on May of the same year he volunteered, in the ongoing war as a sergeant of the 2nd Company of the Tuscany Division Military Engineers. In 1860, he returned to Pisa and after passing university exams, with the help of Giuseppe Poggiali, a technician in the Phisics Laboratory, he built and tested his machine, the first practical dc generator. The results of his experiments and a detailed description of his dynamo were published in the Italian scientific journal Nuovo Cimento in 1864. About the invention, Pacinotti wrote: "The electro-magnetic machine of which the first ideas are here recorded, was built by me in a small model; [...] This machine has only one fixed electro magnet. It works very well as a magneto-electric machine, since always gives a very intense current in one direction". In another note, dated 22 and 23 June 1860, Antonio Pacinotti wrote that the machine works well both as a motor and as a dynamo. In September, 1860, he declared that his machine with respect to other similar devices, such as the Clarke machine, has the advantage of producing direct current, with a constant rotation speed. Although other scientist attempted to build similar devices some years earlier, Pacinotti's machine was the first practical direct current dynamo because it did not produce severely isolated pulses of electric current. At the Vienna Exhibition in 1873 he presented his invention of the 1860s, and for the first time received wide credit. A medal of progress was granted Professor Pacinotti in Vienna, and other medals of honor were given him in 1881 at Paris. The Pacinotti's invention radically contributed to change electricity from a curiosity into a profitable, reliable technology. In fact, until the mid-1800s, the unique source of electric power was the Volta's battery. Unfortunately this kind of electric source was not reliable or cost effective for any regular electrical use. The combination between the dynamo and the invention of the electric light bulbs, available by 1879, allowed the “electricity revolution” both in social and industrial environments. DC generators were installed at the Pearl Street station facilities in New York City, the earliest commercial power generating plant, mainly used for electric lighting. In the same years, DC motors were introduced in some manufacturing industries to substitute the single huge steam engine, so far used to drive all the belts machines running at the same speed. This fact contributed to barely increase the productivity of the factories and most importantly to improve working conditions and safety for the workers. Antonio Pacinotti died in Pisa, on March 24, 1912. At the time of his death he was professor of technological physics at the University of Pisa, succeeding his father since 1881; he was also a senator of the kingdom of Italy. What obstacles (technical, political, geographic) needed to be overcome? With the idea of using a simple device called “commutator” and the ring and toothed types of armature, Antonio Pacinotti contributed to develop the first practical direct current dynamo. The devices previously investigated by other scientists were not able to be used as commercial generators since they produced severely isolated pulses of electric current or they were characterized by low efficient design. What features set this work apart from similar achievements? With the idea of using a simple device called “commutator” and the ring and toothed types of armature, Antonio Pacinotti contributed to develop the first practical direct current dynamo. The devices previously investigated by other scientists were not able to be used as commercial generators since they produced severely isolated pulses of electric current or they were characterized by low efficient design. Although Pacinotti tested his invention by using a permanent magnet as the source of the magnetic field, he described the operation of the machine with reference to an electro-magnet. This was a further improvement, since the use of an electromagnet as a field source allows to increase and to control the electric output. Supporting texts and citations to establish the dates, location, and importance of the achievement. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Minimum of five (5), but as many as needed to support the milestone, such as patents, contemporary newspaper articles, journal articles, or chapters in scholarly books. At least one of the references must be from a scholarly book or journal article. 'Scholarly' is defined as peer-reviewed, with references, and published. The full reference, in English, must be uploaded, not just the citation. See below section for details on uploading material to the website. All supporting materials must be in English, or accompanied by an English translation. References  Il Nuovo Cimento, vol. XIX, 1864, pagg. 378-384 (see the attached english translation of the paper)  M. Guarnieri, "When Cars Went Electric, Part One [Historical]," in IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 61-62, March 2011.  J. L. Sprague, "Frank J. Sprague Invents: The Constant-Speed dc Electric Motor [History]," in IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 80-96, March-April 2016.  Andrews, J.D.F., "Dynamo-electric machine or motor", 1892, USA Patent n. US474624  E. Ambrose, "The distribution of electricity", Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, Vol. 90, No. 4625 (OCTOBER 30th, 1942), pp. 727-749  C. Mackechnie Jarvis, "The History of Electrical Engineering. 4. Machinery for the new light: part 2", Journal I.E.E. September 1955, pp. 566 - 574 Supporting materials (supported formats: GIF, JPEG, PNG, PDF, DOC) which can be made publicly available on the IEEE History Center’s website (i.e. unencumbered by copyright, or with the copyright holder’s permission). All supporting materials must be in English, or if not in English, accompanied by an English translation. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Images and photographs are especially appreciated, however, it is necessary that you list the copyright owner for these and obtain the copyright owner’s permission to reuse. For documents that are copyright-encumbered, or which you do not have rights to post, email the documents themselves to email@example.com. Please see the Milestone Program Guidelines for more information. To add attachments, first upload the file and add by adding the text: [[Media:(filename)]] For example, if the file you uploaded was named "Milestone Reference.pdf", include the text: [[Media:Milestone Reference.pdf]] in the appropriate field. [[Media:Pacinotti macchinetta elettromagnetica english.pdf]] [[Media:2 when cars went electric.pdf]] [[Media:3 frank j sprague.pdf]] [[Media:4 dynamo electric machine.pdf]] [[Media:5 THE DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRICITY.pdf]] [[Media:6 The History of Electrical Engineering.pdf]] Please email a jpeg or PDF a letter in English, or with English translation, from the site owner(s) giving permission to place IEEE milestone plaque on the property, and a letter (or forwarded email) from the appropriate Section Chair supporting the Milestone application to firstname.lastname@example.org with the subject line "Attention: Milestone Administrator." Note that there are multiple texts of the letter depending on whether an IEEE organizational unit other than the section will be paying for the plaque(s). Submit this proposal to the IEEE History Committee for review. Only check this when the proposal is finished Summary: This is a minor edit Watch this page Cancel Retrieved from "http://ieeemilestones.ethw.org/Milestone-Proposal:Milestone_pacinotti"