Edit Proposal: Milestone-Proposal:Line spectrum pair (LSP), an essential technology for high-compression speech coding, 1975 You do not have permission to edit this page, for the following reason: You are not currently logged in. The action you have requested is limited to users in the group: Users. Please log in or create an account. Docket ID: (admins only) Thank you for proposing a technical achievement for possible recognition as an IEEE Milestone in Electrical Engineering and Computing. Your efforts help preserve the heritage of technology. Detailed information on the Milestone application process may be found at: Milestone Guidelines and How to Propose a Milestone. At least one of the proposer(s) must be an IEEE Member (including Student Member) in good standing. To the proposer’s knowledge, is this achievement subject to litigation? If the answer is "yes", the proposal cannot proceed further. None Yes No You must be able to answer "yes" to all of the following questions. If the answer to any of the following questions is "no", the proposal cannot proceed further. Contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org if you are unable to answer "yes" to all of the following and would still like to proceed. Is the achievement you are proposing more than 25 years old? Yes No Is the achievement you are proposing within IEEE’s designated fields as defined by IEEE Bylaw I-104.11, namely: Engineering, Computer Sciences and Information Technology, Physical Sciences, Biological and Medical Sciences, Mathematics, Technical Communications, Education, Management, and Law and Policy. Yes No Did the achievement provide a meaningful benefit for humanity? Yes No Was it of at least regional importance? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to pay for the milestone plaque(s)? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to arrange the dedication ceremony? Yes No Has the IEEE Section in which the milestone is located agreed to take responsibility for the plaque after it is dedicated? Yes No Has the owner of the site given permission to place an IEEE plaque? Yes No Year or range of years in which the achievement occurred: Title of the proposed milestone. (Include date or date range in title. Example: “Alternating Current Electrification, 1886”) Please provide a plaque citation in English summarizing the achievement and its significance. Text absolutely limited by plaque dimensions to 70 words; 60 is preferable for aesthetic reasons. NOTE: The IEEE History Committee shall have final determination on the wording of the citation. Names of living persons are not normally used in citations. Exceptions to this are cases where the person's name is linked to the achievement itself (e.g. the Lempel-Ziv algorithm, Maxwell's Equations, etc.) or where the person's name is so widely recognizeable to the general public that it makes sense to use it. When used, the names should be the names of the engineers, scientists, or technologists who actually made the achievement, rather than managers or executives. For more information and suggestions about writing milestone citations, please visit Helpful Hints on Citations, Plaque Locations. Line Spectrum Pair, invented at NTT in 1975, is an important technology for speech synthesis and coding. A speech synthesizer chip was designed based on Line Spectrum Pair in 1980. In the 1990s, this technology was adopted in almost all international speech coding standards as an essential component and has contributed to the enhancement of digital speech communication over mobile channels and the Internet worldwide. In what IEEE section(s) will the milestone plaque(s) reside? Please specify the IEEE Organizational Unit(s) which have agreed to sponsor the Milestone, and supply name and contact information for the senior officer from those OU(s). 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A museum where a device or example of the technology is displayed, or the university where the inventor studied, are not, in themselves, sufficient connection for a milestone plaque. Also, please Describe briefly the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s). (e.g. Is it corporate buildings? Historic Site? Residential? Are there other historical markers already at the site?) Are the original buildings extant? Please provide the details of the mounting, i.e. on the outside of the building, in the ground floor entrance hall, on a plinth on the grounds, etc. How is the intended plaque site protected/secured, and in what ways is it accessible to the public? If visitors to the plaque site will need to go through security, or make an appointment, please give details as well as the contact information visitors will need in order to arrange to visit the plaque. Who is the present owner of the site(s)? In the space below, please describe in detail: the historic significance of the achievement, its importance to the evolution of electrical and computer engineering and science, its importance to regional/national/international development, its benefits to humanity, the ways the achievement was a significant advance rather than an incremental improvement of existing technology. The material submitted here will constitute the main descriptive article on the ETHW website for readers to learn about the milestone. Space is unlimited, and detail is encouraged. Most milestones require 1000 to 1500 words of support, however there is no word limit. The article should be readable by a wide audience that includes practicing engineers, scholars of history, and the general public. Some examples of the text of good milestone articles are First Radio Astronomical Observations Using Very Long Baseline Interferometry] and G3_Facsimile International Standardization of G3 Facsimile (Do not worry about the formatting of the page, IEEE History Center Staff will do that afterwards.) What is the historical significance of the work (its technological, scientific, or social importance)? The line spectrum pair (LSP), invented in 1975, is one of the most efficient feature representation technologies for speech signals. Due to its number of practical merits for high-compression speech coding, it is commonly used worldwide in speech coding standards for cellular and IP phones, including 3GPP AMR (3G cellular in Europe and Japan), 3GPP2 EVRC (3G cellular in the USA and Japan), ITU-T G.723.1 and G.729 (IP phones), IETF SILK (software IP phones, Skype) , and PDC half (2G cellular in Japan), which cover almost all high-compression telephone communications systems that are widely used around the world now and will be in the future. What obstacles (technical, political, geographic) needed to be overcome? Auto-regressive linear prediction coding (LPC) technology is one of the most powerful and useful speech coding tools . Pioneering investigations of the technology were independently and simultaneously started by Dr. B. S. Atal and Dr. M. R. Schroeder at AT&T Bell Labs in 1966, and by Dr. F. Itakura and Dr. S. Saito at NTT (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone) Labs. Representation and quantization of the prediction coefficients with less bit consumption and smaller LPC spectral distortion are the most critical issues in the LPC framework. At the same time, speech coding for cellular phones needs to be robust against transmission bit errors in the radio-wave environment. Thus, the representation method of predictive coefficients needs to achieve smaller LPC spectral distortion with fewer quantization bits while maintaining robustness against transmission channel errors. What features set this work apart from similar achievements? It is possible to transmit prediction coefficients directly. Quantizing predictive coefficients, however, needs many bits for maintaining the LPC spectral shape. It is also difficult to avoid the risk of instability of the coding system. Partial auto correlation (PARCOR), invented by Dr. F. Itakura and Dr. S. Saito in 1972, enables an easy stability check but still needs many bits of quantization to maintain the LPC spectral shape. It is possible to reduce bit consumption for quantizing PARCOR by applying adaptive bit allocation and variable length coding schemes. Both schemes are, however, extremely sensitive to transmission channel errors. LSP, an alternative representation technology for prediction coefficients, was invented by Dr. F. Itakura in 1975 . It enables a simple stability check and can maintain the LPC spectrum shape with around 30% less bit consumption than PARCOR, even without using adaptive bit allocation or the variable length coding schemes  – . This is because the quantization distortion of LSP has smaller and more natural influences on LPC spectral shape than PARCOR. Thus, small LPC spectral distortion is achieved by efficient coding of LSP in combination with prediction, interpolation, and vector quantization. Supporting texts and citations to establish the dates, location, and importance of the achievement. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Minimum of five (5), but as many as needed to support the milestone, such as patents, contemporary newspaper articles, journal articles, or chapters in scholarly books. At least one of the references must be from a scholarly book or journal article. 'Scholarly' is defined as peer-reviewed, with references, and published. The full reference, in English, must be uploaded, not just the citation. See below section for details on uploading material to the website. All supporting materials must be in English, or accompanied by an English translation.  B. S. Atal, “The History of Linear Prediction”, IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING MAGAZINE, pp. 154-157, MARCH 2006.  F. Itakura, “Line Spectrum Representation of Linear Predictive Coefficients of Speech Signals,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 57, 533(A), 1975.  JP Patent 56051116 - ALL POLE TYPE DIGITAL FILTER invented by F. Itakura http://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?DB=EPODOC&II=8&ND=6&adjacent=true&locale=en_EP&FT=D&date=19810508&CC=JP&NR=56051116A&KC=A  US Patent 4,393,272 Sound synthesizer invented by F. Itakura and N. Sugamura http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=4,393,272.PN.&OS=PN/4,393,272&RS=PN/4,393,272  F. Itakura, “Statistical Methods for Speech Analysis and Synthesis –from ML Vocoder to LSP through PARCOR –,” IEICE Fundamental Review Vol.3 No.3. 2010. (in Japanese) Abstract: The invention process of the line spectrum air (LSP), one of the most important analysis technologies for speech signals, is described. Partial auto correlation (PARCOR) and LSP are alternative representation methods for a speech spectrum shape or a vocal tract shape. Both methods were invented at NTT Labs in 1972 and 1975, respectively. This paper covers the processes for these inventions, starting from the original invention of a speech analysis method based on maximum likelihood estimation in 1966.  F. Itakura, T. Kobayashi and M. Honda, “A Hardware implementation of a new narrow and medium band speech coding,”, Proc. ICASSP 82, pp. 1964 – 1967, 1982.  F. Soong and B. H. Juan, “Line spectrum pair (LSP) and speech data compression,” Proc. ICASSP 84, Vol. 9, pp. 37 – 40, 1984. Supporting materials (supported formats: GIF, JPEG, PNG, PDF, DOC) which can be made publicly available on the IEEE History Center’s website (i.e. unencumbered by copyright, or with the copyright holder’s permission). All supporting materials must be in English, or if not in English, accompanied by an English translation. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Images and photographs are especially appreciated, however, it is necessary that you list the copyright owner for these and obtain the copyright owner’s permission to reuse. For documents that are copyright-encumbered, or which you do not have rights to post, email the documents themselves to email@example.com. Please see the Milestone Program Guidelines for more information. To add attachments, first upload the file and add by adding the text: [[Media:(filename)]] For example, if the file you uploaded was named "Milestone Reference.pdf", include the text: [[Media:Milestone Reference.pdf]] in the appropriate field.  ITU-T G.723.1(Dual rate speech coder for multimedia communications transmitting at 5.3 and 6.3 kbit/s) http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-G.723.1-200605-I,section 2.4-2.7  ITU-T G.729(Coding of speech at 8 kbit/s using conjugate structure algebraic-code-excited linear prediction (CS-ACELP)) http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-G.729-200701-S, section 3.2  3GPP AMRhttp://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_ts/126000_126099/126090/10.01.00_60/ts_126090v100100p.pdf, section 5.2  3GPP2 EVRC http://www.3gpp2.org/public_html/specs/C.S0014-0_v1.0_revised.pdf, section 4.2  IETF SILKhttp://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-vos-silk-01, page 261  Example of VoIP gateway supporting G. 729 http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/solutions_docs/voip_solutions/CAC.html Please email a jpeg or PDF a letter in English, or with English translation, from the site owner(s) giving permission to place IEEE milestone plaque on the property, and a letter (or forwarded email) from the appropriate Section Chair supporting the Milestone application to firstname.lastname@example.org with the subject line "Attention: Milestone Administrator." Note that there are multiple texts of the letter depending on whether an IEEE organizational unit other than the section will be paying for the plaque(s). Submit this proposal to the IEEE History Committee for review. Only check this when the proposal is finished Summary: This is a minor edit Watch this page Cancel Retrieved from "http://ieeemilestones.ethw.org/Milestone-Proposal:Line_spectrum_pair_(LSP),_an_essential_technology_for_high-compression_speech_coding,_1975"