Edit Proposal: Milestone-Proposal:Kodak Digital Camera You do not have permission to edit this page, for the following reason: You are not currently logged in. The action you have requested is limited to users in the group: Users. Please log in or create an account. Docket ID: (admins only) Thank you for proposing a technical achievement for possible recognition as an IEEE Milestone in Electrical Engineering and Computing. Your efforts help preserve the heritage of technology. Detailed information on the Milestone application process may be found at: Milestone Guidelines and How to Propose a Milestone. At least one of the proposer(s) must be an IEEE Member (including Student Member) in good standing. To the proposer’s knowledge, is this achievement subject to litigation? If the answer is "yes", the proposal cannot proceed further. Yes No You must be able to answer "yes" to all of the following questions. If the answer to any of the following questions is "no", the proposal cannot proceed further. Contact us at email@example.com if you are unable to answer "yes" to all of the following and would still like to proceed. Is the achievement you are proposing more than 25 years old? Yes No Is the achievement you are proposing within IEEE’s designated fields as defined by IEEE Bylaw I-104.11, namely: Engineering, Computer Sciences and Information Technology, Physical Sciences, Biological and Medical Sciences, Mathematics, Technical Communications, Education, Management, and Law and Policy. Yes No Did the achievement provide a meaningful benefit for humanity? Yes No Was it of at least regional importance? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to pay for the milestone plaque(s)? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to arrange the dedication ceremony? Yes No Has the IEEE Section in which the milestone is located agreed to take responsibility for the plaque after it is dedicated? Yes No Has the owner of the site given permission to place an IEEE plaque? Yes No Year or range of years in which the achievement occurred: Title of the proposed milestone. (Include date or date range in title. Example: “Alternating Current Electrification, 1886”) Please provide a plaque citation in English summarizing the achievement and its significance. Text absolutely limited by plaque dimensions to 70 words; 60 is preferable for aesthetic reasons. NOTE: The IEEE History Committee shall have final determination on the wording of the citation. Names of living persons are not normally used in citations. Exceptions to this are cases where the person's name is linked to the achievement itself (e.g. the Lempel-Ziv algorithm, Maxwell's Equations, etc.) or where the person's name is so widely recognizeable to the general public that it makes sense to use it. When used, the names should be the names of the engineers, scientists, or technologists who actually made the achievement, rather than managers or executives. For more information and suggestions about writing milestone citations, please visit Helpful Hints on Citations, Plaque Locations. A self-contained portable digital camera was invented at an Eastman Kodak Company laboratory. It used movie camera optics, a charge-coupled device as an electronic light sensor, a temporary buffer of random-access memory, and image storage on a digital cassette. Subsequent commercial digital cameras using flash memory storage revolutionized how images are captured, processed, and shared, creating opportunities in commerce, education, and global communications. In what IEEE section(s) will the milestone plaque(s) reside? Please specify the IEEE Organizational Unit(s) which have agreed to sponsor the Milestone, and supply name and contact information for the senior officer from those OU(s). Sponsorship has three aspects: 1) Payment for the cost of the plaque(s), 2) Arranging the dedication ceremony, and 3) agreeing to monitor the plaque and to let IEEE History Center staff know in case the plaque needs to be moved, is no longer secure, etc. Number 3 must be done by the IEEE Section(s) in which the plaque(s) is located, but aspects 1 and 2 can be done by any IEEE Organizational Unit, and they need not be the same one. Please note: your email address and contact information will be masked on the website for privacy reasons. Only IEEE History Center Staff will be able to view the email address. IEEE Organizational Unit(s) paying for milestone plaque(s) Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE Organizational Unit(s) arranging the dedication ceremony Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE section(s) monitoring the plaque IEEE Section: IEEE Section Chair name: IEEE Section Chair e-mail: IEEE Section: IEEE Section Chair name: IEEE Section Chair e-mail: Milestone proposer(s) Proposer name: Proposer email: Proposer name: Proposer email: Proposer name: Proposer email: Proposer name: Proposer email: Street address(es) and GPS coordinates of the intended milestone plaque site(s). Please include coordinates in decimal format rather than degrees. What is the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s) relation to the achievement? The intended site(s) must have a direct connection with the achievement (e.g. where developed, invented, tested, demonstrated, installed, or operated, etc.). A museum where a device or example of the technology is displayed, or the university where the inventor studied, are not, in themselves, sufficient connection for a milestone plaque. Also, please Describe briefly the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s). (e.g. Is it corporate buildings? Historic Site? Residential? Are there other historical markers already at the site?) Are the original buildings extant? Please provide the details of the mounting, i.e. on the outside of the building, in the ground floor entrance hall, on a plinth on the grounds, etc. How is the intended plaque site protected/secured, and in what ways is it accessible to the public? If visitors to the plaque site will need to go through security, or make an appointment, please give details as well as the contact information visitors will need in order to arrange to visit the plaque. Who is the present owner of the site(s)? In the space below, please describe in detail: the historic significance of the achievement, its importance to the evolution of electrical and computer engineering and science, its importance to regional/national/international development, its benefits to humanity, the ways the achievement was a significant advance rather than an incremental improvement of existing technology. The material submitted here will constitute the main descriptive article on the ETHW website for readers to learn about the milestone. Space is unlimited, and detail is encouraged. Most milestones require 1000 to 1500 words of support, however there is no word limit. The article should be readable by a wide audience that includes practicing engineers, scholars of history, and the general public. Some examples of the text of good milestone articles are First Radio Astronomical Observations Using Very Long Baseline Interferometry] and G3_Facsimile International Standardization of G3 Facsimile (Do not worry about the formatting of the page, IEEE History Center Staff will do that afterwards.) What is the historical significance of the work (its technological, scientific, or social importance)? Digital camera are device for making digital recordings of images. Back in 1975 when Steve Sasson invented the digital camera there was no internet, and all pictures were taken using film camera and film had to be developed and in some cases printed to be able to see the pictures. Generally, you took the pictures today and didn't see the results for several days. Today you can buy just about any kind of digital camera you like. Cameras are available in cell phones, handhelds, toys, pens, tablets, glasses, and lots of other gadgets. Almost anyone can afford a digital camera and millions own at least one model and can take pictures for instant review, sharing on social media, archiving, and printing. The uses are so much more varied than images were before the digital camera that it is virtually incalculable. What obstacles (technical, political, geographic) needed to be overcome? Unlike film cameras, digital cameras do not have any mechanical parts (shutters) or chemical agents (film) and rarely have a viewfinder, which is typically replaced by a liquid crystal display (LCD). At the core of a digital camera is a semiconductor device, such as a charge-coupled device (CCD) or a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS), which measures light intensity and color (using different filters) transmitted through the camera’s lenses. None of these existed much before 1972. The charge-coupled device was invented in 1969, based upon a MOS architecture. This was the key enabling technology and it was around early CCD devices that Sasson and his group were able to produce the first hand-held digital camera. To store the image, he decided to use what was at that time a relatively new process — digitalization — turning the electronic pulses into numbers. But that solution led to another challenge — storing it on RAM memory, then getting it onto digital magnetic tape. What features set this work apart from similar achievements? Probably the earliest proposal for the use of digital image capture was written by Eugene F. Lally of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory who proposed in 1961 using a photosensor to capture telescopic digital images of the planets and stars. He declined funding in 1973 to actually build such a system citing other priorities. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eugene_F._Lally The Cromemco Cyclops was an all-digital camera introduced as a commercial product in 1975. Its design was published as a hobbyist construction project in the February 1975 issue of Popular Electronics magazine, and it used a 32×32 Metal Oxide Semiconductor sensor. The Cyclops was primarily a tethered motion video device, the title for our milestone clarifies that we are claiming a portable still image camera. " First Hand-Held Portable All-Electronic Solid-State Still Camera, 1975" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cromemco_Cyclops Steven Sasson, an engineer at Eastman Kodak, invented and built a self-contained electronic camera that used the Fairchild MV-101 a 100 x 100 pixel charge-coupled device (CCD) image sensor in 1975. Specifically, the device was the first hand-held camera to include camera optics, a charge-coupled device electronic light sensor, a temporary buffer of random-access memory, and image storage on a digital cassette. Sasson and co-inventor Gareth Lloyd were granted the first patent "US4131919 Electronic still camera" with a filing date of 20-May-1977. Supporting texts and citations to establish the dates, location, and importance of the achievement. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Minimum of five (5), but as many as needed to support the milestone, such as patents, contemporary newspaper articles, journal articles, or chapters in scholarly books. At least one of the references must be from a scholarly book or journal article. 'Scholarly' is defined as peer-reviewed, with references, and published. The full reference, in English, must be uploaded, not just the citation. See below section for details on uploading material to the website. All supporting materials must be in English, or accompanied by an English translation. https://www.invent.org/inductees/steven-sasson<br><br> https://www.cnet.com/news/photos-the-history-of-the-digital-camera/<br><br> https://spectrum.ieee.org/the-institute/ieee-member-news/ten-on-tech-spotlight-on-steven-j-sasson<br><br> https://www.diyphotography.net/worlds-first-digital-camera-introduced-man-invented/ <br><br> https://www.thevintagenews.com/2016/07/25/steve-sasson-invented-the-first-digital-camera-in-1975-but-was-forced-to-keep-it-hidden/ <br><br> https://youtu.be/2yDLEBsThvk<br><br> https://fstoppers.com/education/story-worlds-first-digital-camera-told-its-inventor-215236 <br><br> https://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/08/12/kodaks-first-digital-moment/ <br><br> Patent: US4131919 Electronic still camera<br><br>https://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=4131919.PN.&OS=PN/4131919&RS=PN/4131919<br><br> ''References''<br><br><br> The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, Volume 18, Issue 1, March 2009, Pages 46-55<br><br> The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, Disruptive technology: How Kodak missed the digital photography revolution, Henry C.LucasJr. and Jie MeinGoh, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsis.2009.01.002 <br><br> Yoo, Youngjin, Kalle Lyytinen, Veeresh Thummadi, and Aaron Weiss, "Unbounded innovation with digitalization: A case of digital camera," In Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, pp. 1-41. 2010. <br><br> Text from Unbounded Innovation with Digitalization: A Case of Digital Camera: Introduction On November 2009, Willard Boyle and George E. Smith received Nobel Prize in Physics for their invention of charge-coupled device (CCD), a key component of digital cameras. When they invented CCD in 1969 at AT&T Bell Labs, little did they know that their invention would affect the lives of billions of people around the world three decades later. Conceived merely as a technical exercise, the original digital camera was first built by Steven Sasson at Eastman Kodak in December 1975. It weighed 8 pounds with its toaster-size body, and took 23 seconds to capture an image of 0.01 megapixels on a cassette tape. It required a separate TV to see the image, which took another 23 seconds to retrieve. 30 years later, however, digital camera has become ubiquitous. <br><br> Supporting materials (supported formats: GIF, JPEG, PNG, PDF, DOC) which can be made publicly available on the IEEE History Center’s website (i.e. unencumbered by copyright, or with the copyright holder’s permission). All supporting materials must be in English, or if not in English, accompanied by an English translation. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Images and photographs are especially appreciated, however, it is necessary that you list the copyright owner for these and obtain the copyright owner’s permission to reuse. For documents that are copyright-encumbered, or which you do not have rights to post, email the documents themselves to firstname.lastname@example.org. Please see the Milestone Program Guidelines for more information. To add attachments, first upload the file and add by adding the text: [[Media:(filename)]] For example, if the file you uploaded was named "Milestone Reference.pdf", include the text: [[Media:Milestone Reference.pdf]] in the appropriate field. Please email a jpeg or PDF a letter in English, or with English translation, from the site owner(s) giving permission to place IEEE milestone plaque on the property, and a letter (or forwarded email) from the appropriate Section Chair supporting the Milestone application to email@example.com with the subject line "Attention: Milestone Administrator." Note that there are multiple texts of the letter depending on whether an IEEE organizational unit other than the section will be paying for the plaque(s). Submit this proposal to the IEEE History Committee for review. Only check this when the proposal is finished Summary: This is a minor edit Watch this page Cancel Retrieved from "http://ieeemilestones.ethw.org/Milestone-Proposal:Kodak_Digital_Camera"