Edit Proposal: Milestone-Proposal:Invention and development of vapor-phase axial deposition (VAD) method for mass production of high-quality optical fiber for telecommunication You do not have permission to edit this page, for the following reason: You are not currently logged in. The action you have requested is limited to users in the group: Users. Please log in or create an account. Docket ID: (admins only) Thank you for proposing a technical achievement for possible recognition as an IEEE Milestone in Electrical Engineering and Computing. Your efforts help preserve the heritage of technology. Detailed information on the Milestone application process may be found at: Milestone Guidelines and How to Propose a Milestone. At least one of the proposer(s) must be an IEEE Member (including Student Member) in good standing. To the proposer’s knowledge, is this achievement subject to litigation? If the answer is "yes", the proposal cannot proceed further. None Yes No You must be able to answer "yes" to all of the following questions. If the answer to any of the following questions is "no", the proposal cannot proceed further. Contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org if you are unable to answer "yes" to all of the following and would still like to proceed. Is the achievement you are proposing more than 25 years old? Yes No Is the achievement you are proposing within IEEE’s designated fields as defined by IEEE Bylaw I-104.11, namely: Engineering, Computer Sciences and Information Technology, Physical Sciences, Biological and Medical Sciences, Mathematics, Technical Communications, Education, Management, and Law and Policy. Yes No Did the achievement provide a meaningful benefit for humanity? Yes No Was it of at least regional importance? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to pay for the milestone plaque(s)? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to arrange the dedication ceremony? Yes No Has the IEEE Section in which the milestone is located agreed to take responsibility for the plaque after it is dedicated? Yes No Has the owner of the site given permission to place an IEEE plaque? Yes No Year or range of years in which the achievement occurred: Title of the proposed milestone. (Include date or date range in title. Example: “Alternating Current Electrification, 1886”) Please provide a plaque citation in English summarizing the achievement and its significance. Text absolutely limited by plaque dimensions to 70 words; 60 is preferable for aesthetic reasons. NOTE: The IEEE History Committee shall have final determination on the wording of the citation. Names of living persons are not normally used in citations. Exceptions to this are cases where the person's name is linked to the achievement itself (e.g. the Lempel-Ziv algorithm, Maxwell's Equations, etc.) or where the person's name is so widely recognizeable to the general public that it makes sense to use it. When used, the names should be the names of the engineers, scientists, or technologists who actually made the achievement, rather than managers or executives. For more information and suggestions about writing milestone citations, please visit Helpful Hints on Citations, Plaque Locations. In 1977, Dr. Tatsuo Izawa of Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp. (NTT) invented the vapor-phase axial deposition (VAD) method suitable for the mass production of optical fiber. NTT, Furukawa Electric, Sumitomo Electric, and Fujikura collaboratively investigated the fabrication process. The technology successfully shifted from research and development to commercialization. The VAD method contributed greatly to the construction of optical-fiber networks. In what IEEE section(s) will the milestone plaque(s) reside? Please specify the IEEE Organizational Unit(s) which have agreed to sponsor the Milestone, and supply name and contact information for the senior officer from those OU(s). Sponsorship has three aspects: 1) Payment for the cost of the plaque(s), 2) Arranging the dedication ceremony, and 3) agreeing to monitor the plaque and to let IEEE History Center staff know in case the plaque needs to be moved, is no longer secure, etc. Number 3 must be done by the IEEE Section(s) in which the plaque(s) is located, but aspects 1 and 2 can be done by any IEEE Organizational Unit, and they need not be the same one. Please note: your email address and contact information will be masked on the website for privacy reasons. Only IEEE History Center Staff will be able to view the email address. IEEE Organizational Unit(s) paying for milestone plaque(s) Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE Organizational Unit(s) arranging the dedication ceremony Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE section(s) monitoring the plaque IEEE Section: IEEE Section Chair name: IEEE Section Chair e-mail: IEEE Section: IEEE Section Chair name: IEEE Section Chair e-mail: Milestone proposer(s) Proposer name: Proposer email: Proposer name: Proposer email: Street address(es) and GPS coordinates of the intended milestone plaque site(s). Please include coordinates in decimal format rather than degrees. What is the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s) relation to the achievement? The intended site(s) must have a direct connection with the achievement (e.g. where developed, invented, tested, demonstrated, installed, or operated, etc.). A museum where a device or example of the technology is displayed, or the university where the inventor studied, are not, in themselves, sufficient connection for a milestone plaque. Also, please Describe briefly the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s). (e.g. Is it corporate buildings? Historic Site? Residential? Are there other historical markers already at the site?) Are the original buildings extant? Please provide the details of the mounting, i.e. on the outside of the building, in the ground floor entrance hall, on a plinth on the grounds, etc. How is the intended plaque site protected/secured, and in what ways is it accessible to the public? If visitors to the plaque site will need to go through security, or make an appointment, please give details as well as the contact information visitors will need in order to arrange to visit the plaque. Who is the present owner of the site(s)? In the space below, please describe in detail: the historic significance of the achievement, its importance to the evolution of electrical and computer engineering and science, its importance to regional/national/international development, its benefits to humanity, the ways the achievement was a significant advance rather than an incremental improvement of existing technology. The material submitted here will constitute the main descriptive article on the ETHW website for readers to learn about the milestone. Space is unlimited, and detail is encouraged. Most milestones require 1000 to 1500 words of support, however there is no word limit. The article should be readable by a wide audience that includes practicing engineers, scholars of history, and the general public. Some examples of the text of good milestone articles are First Radio Astronomical Observations Using Very Long Baseline Interferometry] and G3_Facsimile International Standardization of G3 Facsimile (Do not worry about the formatting of the page, IEEE History Center Staff will do that afterwards.) What is the historical significance of the work (its technological, scientific, or social importance)? From 1975 to 1983, NTT and three Japanese electric wire and cable manufacturers (Furukawa Electric, Sumitomo Electric, and Fujikura) worked collaboratively on the research and development of optical fiber for telecommunication. Then in 1977, NTT researcher Dr. Tatsuo Izawa invented the vapor-phase axial deposition (VAD) method for fabricating optical fiber preforms that were highly suitable for the mass production of optical fiber. The invention of the VAD method and the collaborative work to improve the process undertaken by NTT and the three electric wire and cable manufacturers established the basis for the low-cost mass production of high-quality low-loss optical fiber. The VAD method is currently the most used optical fiber fabrication method and accounts for more than 50% of the optical fiber used for telecommunications. The VAD method has contributed to the building of optical telecommunication networks that support our advanced information and communication society. What obstacles (technical, political, geographic) needed to be overcome? In 1966, Dr. Charles K. Kao expanded the possibility of long-distance communication using glass optical fiber. Then in 1970, Corning demonstrated silica-glass optical fiber with a propagation loss of 20 dB/km at a wavelength of 632.8 nm. This sparked an interest in optical fiber throughout the world, and in 1974 Bell Labs realized fiber with a 1.1 dB/km propagation loss at a wavelength of 1060 nm by using the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) method. In Japan, NTT and the Japanese electric wire and cable manufacturers Furukawa Electric, Sumitomo Electric, and Fujikura started R&D collaboration in 1975 with the aim of developing practical optical fiber. Optical fiber is fabricated by drawing a string of fiber from a cylindrical glass preform that is being heated in an electric furnace. To build optical communication systems that provide long distance and broadband communications, optical fiber must exhibit a low optical propagation loss and its fabrication method should allow mass production, which is important for providing optical fiber at low cost. The development of a method for manufacturing large optical fiber glass preforms at a relatively high speed was an important problem in terms of the mass production of optical fiber. In 1977, while working on a solution to the above problem, Dr. Tatsuo Izawa, an NTT researcher, invented the vapor-phase axial deposition (VAD) method. In the VAD method process, a porous preform is grown by the deposition of fine glass particles synthesized by the flame hydrolysis of halide raw materials such as SiCl4 and GeCl4 while being pulled upward in the axial direction. This process allows the growth of long and large-diameter porous preforms. The porous glass is consolidated by using an electric furnace to obtain a transparent glass perform from which to draw optical fiber. The VAD method achieved a fast glass deposition speed and made it possible to fabricate a large glass perform, and this paved the way to the mass production of optical fiber. What features set this work apart from similar achievements? With the VAD method, the porous glass preform is fabricated by the deposition of fine glass material via flame hydrolysis onto the end surface of a starting silica glass rod used as a seed. The starting rod is pulled upward, and the porous preform is grown in the axial direction. The porous glass is successively consolidated into a transparent glass preform for the fiber drawing process by arranging the melting zone region at the upper position in the axial direction. By contrast, other glass preform fabrication methods such as modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) and outside vapor deposition (OVD) require a collapsing process before they can prepare a transparent glass preform for fiber drawing. The fact that the VAD method does not need a collapsing process enables the continuous fabrication of a glass preform, which is preferable for the low cost mass production of optical fiber. Supporting texts and citations to establish the dates, location, and importance of the achievement. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Minimum of five (5), but as many as needed to support the milestone, such as patents, contemporary newspaper articles, journal articles, or chapters in scholarly books. At least one of the references must be from a scholarly book or journal article. 'Scholarly' is defined as peer-reviewed, with references, and published. The full reference, in English, must be uploaded, not just the citation. See below section for details on uploading material to the website. All supporting materials must be in English, or accompanied by an English translation. <Journal articles and conference papers>  T. Izawa, S. Kobayashi, S. Sudo, and F. Hanawa, “Continuous fabrication of high silica fiber preform”, Int. Conf. Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Commun., 375, 1977.  T. Izawa, N. Shibata, and A. Takeda, “Optical attenuation in pure and doped fused silica in the IR wavelength region,” Applied Phys. Lett. Vol.31, No.1, pp.33-35, 1977.  T. Izawa, S. Sudo, and F. Hanawa, “Continuous Fabrication Process for High-Silica Fiber Preforms,” IECE of Japan, Vol.E-62, No.11, 1980.  F. Hanawa, S. Sudo, M. Kawachi, and M.Nakahara, “Fabrication of Completely OH-FREE V.A.D Fibre,” Electon. Lett., Vol. 16, No. 18, pp.699-700, 1980.  T. Izawa and N. Inagaki, “Materials and Processes for Fiber Preform Fabrication—Vapor-Phase Axial Deposition,” Proc. IEEE, Vol.68, No.10, pp.1184-1187, 1980.  T.Edahiro, S.Takahashi, K.Yoshida, M.Yoshida, and T.Shioda, “Long single-mode fiber made by vapor-phase axial deposition,” Proc. IOOC’1981, TUC2, pp.50-51, 1981.  M.Nakahara, N.Ingaki, K.Yoshida, M.Yoshida, O.Fukuda, “Fabrication of 100-km graded-index fiber from a continuously consolidated VAD perform,” Proc. IOOC’1981, WD4, pp.100-101, 1981.  M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, S. Tomaru, T. Edahiro, and S. Sakaguchi, “Wholly synthesized VAD single-mode fibre,” Electron. Lett., Vol. 18, No. 18, pp. 328-330, 1982. <Patent>  T. Izawa, T. Miyashita and F. Hanawa, “ Continuous optical fiber preform fabrication method”, US Patent 4062665(Filed date: April. 5, Issued date: December 13, 1977) Supporting materials (supported formats: GIF, JPEG, PNG, PDF, DOC) which can be made publicly available on the IEEE History Center’s website (i.e. unencumbered by copyright, or with the copyright holder’s permission). All supporting materials must be in English, or if not in English, accompanied by an English translation. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Images and photographs are especially appreciated, however, it is necessary that you list the copyright owner for these and obtain the copyright owner’s permission to reuse. For documents that are copyright-encumbered, or which you do not have rights to post, email the documents themselves to email@example.com. Please see the Milestone Program Guidelines for more information. To add attachments, first upload the file and add by adding the text: [[Media:(filename)]] For example, if the file you uploaded was named "Milestone Reference.pdf", include the text: [[Media:Milestone Reference.pdf]] in the appropriate field. [[Media:Supporting Materials VAD(IEEE Milestone).pdf|Supporting Materials VAD(IEEE Milestone).pdf]] Please email a jpeg or PDF a letter in English, or with English translation, from the site owner(s) giving permission to place IEEE milestone plaque on the property, and a letter (or forwarded email) from the appropriate Section Chair supporting the Milestone application to firstname.lastname@example.org with the subject line "Attention: Milestone Administrator." Note that there are multiple texts of the letter depending on whether an IEEE organizational unit other than the section will be paying for the plaque(s). Submit this proposal to the IEEE History Committee for review. 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