Edit Proposal: Milestone-Proposal:Introduction of the Apple I Computer: 1976 You do not have permission to edit this page, for the following reason: You are not currently logged in. The action you have requested is limited to users in the group: Users. Please log in or create an account. Docket ID: (admins only) Thank you for proposing a technical achievement for possible recognition as an IEEE Milestone in Electrical Engineering and Computing. Your efforts help preserve the heritage of technology. Detailed information on the Milestone application process may be found at: Milestone Guidelines and How to Propose a Milestone. At least one of the proposer(s) must be an IEEE Member (including Student Member) in good standing. To the proposer’s knowledge, is this achievement subject to litigation? If the answer is "yes", the proposal cannot proceed further. None Yes No You must be able to answer "yes" to all of the following questions. If the answer to any of the following questions is "no", the proposal cannot proceed further. Contact us at email@example.com if you are unable to answer "yes" to all of the following and would still like to proceed. Is the achievement you are proposing more than 25 years old? Yes No Is the achievement you are proposing within IEEE’s designated fields as defined by IEEE Bylaw I-104.11, namely: Engineering, Computer Sciences and Information Technology, Physical Sciences, Biological and Medical Sciences, Mathematics, Technical Communications, Education, Management, and Law and Policy. Yes No Did the achievement provide a meaningful benefit for humanity? Yes No Was it of at least regional importance? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to pay for the milestone plaque(s)? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to arrange the dedication ceremony? Yes No Has the IEEE Section in which the milestone is located agreed to take responsibility for the plaque after it is dedicated? Yes No Has the owner of the site given permission to place an IEEE plaque? Yes No Year or range of years in which the achievement occurred: Title of the proposed milestone. (Include date or date range in title. Example: “Alternating Current Electrification, 1886”) Please provide a plaque citation in English summarizing the achievement and its significance. Text absolutely limited by plaque dimensions to 70 words; 60 is preferable for aesthetic reasons. NOTE: The IEEE History Committee shall have final determination on the wording of the citation. Names of living persons are not normally used in citations. Exceptions to this are cases where the person's name is linked to the achievement itself (e.g. the Lempel-Ziv algorithm, Maxwell's Equations, etc.) or where the person's name is so widely recognizeable to the general public that it makes sense to use it. When used, the names should be the names of the engineers, scientists, or technologists who actually made the achievement, rather than managers or executives. For more information and suggestions about writing milestone citations, please visit Helpful Hints on Citations, Plaque Locations. The features essential for a personal computer were first encompassed by the Apple I: a fully-assembled circuit board with dynamic RAM, video interface, keyboard, mass storage and a high-level programming language. This affordable computer platform triggered a software industry that grew as the sophistication of these essential features grew, and the Apple I thus helped launch the personal computer revolution. In what IEEE section(s) will the milestone plaque(s) reside? Please specify the IEEE Organizational Unit(s) which have agreed to sponsor the Milestone, and supply name and contact information for the senior officer from those OU(s). Sponsorship has three aspects: 1) Payment for the cost of the plaque(s), 2) Arranging the dedication ceremony, and 3) agreeing to monitor the plaque and to let IEEE History Center staff know in case the plaque needs to be moved, is no longer secure, etc. Number 3 must be done by the IEEE Section(s) in which the plaque(s) is located, but aspects 1 and 2 can be done by any IEEE Organizational Unit, and they need not be the same one. Please note: your email address and contact information will be masked on the website for privacy reasons. Only IEEE History Center Staff will be able to view the email address. IEEE Organizational Unit(s) paying for milestone plaque(s) Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE Organizational Unit(s) arranging the dedication ceremony Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE section(s) monitoring the plaque IEEE Section: IEEE Section Chair name: IEEE Section Chair e-mail: IEEE Section: IEEE Section Chair name: IEEE Section Chair e-mail: Milestone proposer(s) Proposer name: Proposer email: Proposer name: Proposer email: Street address(es) and GPS coordinates of the intended milestone plaque site(s). Please include coordinates in decimal format rather than degrees. What is the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s) relation to the achievement? The intended site(s) must have a direct connection with the achievement (e.g. where developed, invented, tested, demonstrated, installed, or operated, etc.). A museum where a device or example of the technology is displayed, or the university where the inventor studied, are not, in themselves, sufficient connection for a milestone plaque. Also, please Describe briefly the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s). (e.g. Is it corporate buildings? Historic Site? Residential? Are there other historical markers already at the site?) Are the original buildings extant? Please provide the details of the mounting, i.e. on the outside of the building, in the ground floor entrance hall, on a plinth on the grounds, etc. How is the intended plaque site protected/secured, and in what ways is it accessible to the public? If visitors to the plaque site will need to go through security, or make an appointment, please give details as well as the contact information visitors will need in order to arrange to visit the plaque. Who is the present owner of the site(s)? In the space below, please describe in detail: the historic significance of the achievement, its importance to the evolution of electrical and computer engineering and science, its importance to regional/national/international development, its benefits to humanity, the ways the achievement was a significant advance rather than an incremental improvement of existing technology. The material submitted here will constitute the main descriptive article on the ETHW website for readers to learn about the milestone. Space is unlimited, and detail is encouraged. Most milestones require 1000 to 1500 words of support, however there is no word limit. The article should be readable by a wide audience that includes practicing engineers, scholars of history, and the general public. Some examples of the text of good milestone articles are First Radio Astronomical Observations Using Very Long Baseline Interferometry] and G3_Facsimile International Standardization of G3 Facsimile (Do not worry about the formatting of the page, IEEE History Center Staff will do that afterwards.) What is the historical significance of the work (its technological, scientific, or social importance)? All computers before the Apple I, including hobby computers, had a front panel for entry of binary data into memory, for observing binary data in memory, and for running software. All computers after the Apple I followed its formula of startup code in ROM, keyboard input, a video display, and elimination of the front panel. The Apple I design was given away publicly at Homebrew Computer Club meetings in the San Francisco Bay Area. In a real sense, the Apple I computer was one of the first open computer architectures. The Apple I was designed, built and sold in limited numbers in 1976 for $666.66. In 2013, a working Apple I computer was sold at auction for $671,400. It is believed that there are about 50 Apple I computers left in the world.(Ref. 1) What obstacles (technical, political, geographic) needed to be overcome? Prior to the Apple I, hobbyist computers were sold as kits that included components from different companies, and were affordable only in configurations that could not easily solve real-world computer problems. Early hobby computers such as the MITS Altair 8800 were programmed with front-mounted toggle switches, and indicator lights on the front panel provided output. (Ref. 2) Separate hardware was required to allow connection to a computer terminal or teletypewriter. Due to high cost, these machines typically only had 256 to 1024 bytes of RAM. In addition, the front panel components were a considerable cost factor. A remote teletype terminal with specialized hardware cost at least $700,(Ref. 3) making this an unattractive option for cost-conscious hobbyists. Early attempts to create personal computers were based on expensive static RAM, and 4KB of this expensive memory was needed to support a higher-level language such as the BASIC interpreter written by Bill Gates. With their input and output limitations, these early computers were primarily used by computer hobbyists who were willing to dedicate a lot of effort to make them work. It was very difficult for a small business or home user to enter useful programs into, or even to play computer games on, these early computers. There was thus no inexpensive computer that could be used by a casual user, and the very concept of a computer in the home was a novelty. In addition to the need to make a computer useful to regular users, there needed to be marketing about home or “personal” computers.(Ref. 4) The Apple I computer was the first product that was sold as a single assembled piece of computer hardware that could be easily used in the home, and which was marketed as a personal computer. What features set this work apart from similar achievements? Unlike earlier hobbyist computers, the Apple I was not sold as a kit to be assembled by the user. Instead, it was a fully-assembled circuit board containing over 60 chips. To make a working computer, the user had to add a power supply transformer, ASCII keyboard and a composite video display such as a conventional TV of that time. Some users also added a case and/or a power switch. An optional board providing a tape cassette interface for program and data storage was introduced after the initial product introduction (Ref. 2) and this option allowed the BASIC (Ref. 5) interpreter to be loaded into RAM. The Apple I skipped all the expense of a front panel, which included switches, wiring and chips to support input using switches and output using lights. The Apple I used an electronic keyboard as its input device. The 4096 bytes of Dynamic RAM (DRAM) used in the Apple I was less costly than magnetic core memory used in many prior computers, and it had just been introduced at the time of the Apple I design. This DRAM was also many times less expensive than the Static RAM (SRAM) used by other low cost kits, although its need to be refreshed made its use more complex than that of SRAM. DRAM used as working memory meant that logical addresses needed to be supplied in an organized fashion. The Apple I used the video circuit timing chips, from a prior terminal design of Steve Wozniak’s. These timing chips were used for a double purpose, since they also supplied the refresh addresses.(Ref. 6) This sharing of functions saved parts, and thus reduced the overall product cost. The video output and keyboard input were accomplished through a parallel interface chip. The video memory was optimized (for cost) around dynamic shift register technology, and it could be updated with new characters at a rate of 60 Hz. All the timing was based on the NTSC color standard frequency, divided down for DRAM timing, display timing, processor clocking and more. Thus, a single timing circuit replaced many independent timing circuits that were common in prior computer designs. Together, these factors made the Apple I computer small and low cost. As Steve Wozniak considered a high-level language essential for the usefulness of the Apple I, he wrote the BASIC (Ref. 5) interpreter. Without this BASIC interpreter, the Apple I would have been useful only for hard-core computer types. With a standard high-level programming language, software could be written and then distributed and used on multiple computers. This enabled a software eco-system that would increase the usefulness of the computer to casual users. The Apple I defined the elements of a personal computer, thus making it affordable and useful for “normal” people. The cost reductions that made this possible were (1) an integrated and fully assembled working computer circuit board based on the powerful 1MHz 6502 microprocessor, (2) state-of-the-art but low-cost DRAM, (3) clever sharing of components, (4) the use of a typewriter-style keyboard to replace the front panel, and (5) NTSC output through a TV modulator to an owner's existing TV (Ref. 6). The Apple I was thus able to realize the goal of a low-cost, easy-to-use personal computer.(Ref. 7) Supporting texts and citations to establish the dates, location, and importance of the achievement. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Minimum of five (5), but as many as needed to support the milestone, such as patents, contemporary newspaper articles, journal articles, or chapters in scholarly books. At least one of the references must be from a scholarly book or journal article. 'Scholarly' is defined as peer-reviewed, with references, and published. The full reference, in English, must be uploaded, not just the citation. See below section for details on uploading material to the website. All supporting materials must be in English, or accompanied by an English translation. #Mike Cassidy, [[Media:Apple1-NewsStory(19June2013).pdf|Steve Wozniak test-drives ancient Apple 1 computers]], San Jose Mercury News, June 19, 2013. #Apple I Wikipedia article, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_I #Teletype Model 33 Wikipedia article, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teletype_Model_33 #[[Media:Apple 1 Advertisement Oct 1976.jpg|Introductory Advertisement for the Apple I computer, 1976]] #Integer BASIC article, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Integer_Basic #[[Media:US Patent 4136359 - Microcomputer for use with video display.pdf|US Patent No. 4,136,359 to Wozniak, filed April 11, 1977, issued Jan. 23, 1979: Microcomputer For Use with Video Display]] #[http://www.stevenlevy.com/index.php/books/hackers ''Hackers - Heroes of the Computer Revolution''], Steven Levy, Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1984 Supporting materials (supported formats: GIF, JPEG, PNG, PDF, DOC) which can be made publicly available on the IEEE History Center’s website (i.e. unencumbered by copyright, or with the copyright holder’s permission). All supporting materials must be in English, or if not in English, accompanied by an English translation. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Images and photographs are especially appreciated, however, it is necessary that you list the copyright owner for these and obtain the copyright owner’s permission to reuse. For documents that are copyright-encumbered, or which you do not have rights to post, email the documents themselves to firstname.lastname@example.org. Please see the Milestone Program Guidelines for more information. To add attachments, first upload the file and add by adding the text: [[Media:(filename)]] For example, if the file you uploaded was named "Milestone Reference.pdf", include the text: [[Media:Milestone Reference.pdf]] in the appropriate field. #Bruce Newman, [[Media:SteveJobsHouseAndGarage.pdf|Steve Jobs' old garage about to become a piece of history]], San Jose Mercury News, Sept. 29, 2013 Please email a jpeg or PDF a letter in English, or with English translation, from the site owner(s) giving permission to place IEEE milestone plaque on the property, and a letter (or forwarded email) from the appropriate Section Chair supporting the Milestone application to email@example.com with the subject line "Attention: Milestone Administrator." Note that there are multiple texts of the letter depending on whether an IEEE organizational unit other than the section will be paying for the plaque(s). Submit this proposal to the IEEE History Committee for review. 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