Edit Proposal: Milestone-Proposal:Introduction of the Apple II Computer: 1977-1978 You do not have permission to edit this page, for the following reason: You are not currently logged in. The action you have requested is limited to users in the group: Users. Please log in or create an account. Docket ID: (admins only) Thank you for proposing a technical achievement for possible recognition as an IEEE Milestone in Electrical Engineering and Computing. Your efforts help preserve the heritage of technology. Detailed information on the Milestone application process may be found at: Milestone Guidelines and How to Propose a Milestone. At least one of the proposer(s) must be an IEEE Member (including Student Member) in good standing. To the proposer’s knowledge, is this achievement subject to litigation? If the answer is "yes", the proposal cannot proceed further. None Yes No You must be able to answer "yes" to all of the following questions. If the answer to any of the following questions is "no", the proposal cannot proceed further. Contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org if you are unable to answer "yes" to all of the following and would still like to proceed. Is the achievement you are proposing more than 25 years old? Yes No Is the achievement you are proposing within IEEE’s designated fields as defined by IEEE Bylaw I-104.11, namely: Engineering, Computer Sciences and Information Technology, Physical Sciences, Biological and Medical Sciences, Mathematics, Technical Communications, Education, Management, and Law and Policy. Yes No Did the achievement provide a meaningful benefit for humanity? Yes No Was it of at least regional importance? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to pay for the milestone plaque(s)? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to arrange the dedication ceremony? Yes No Has the IEEE Section in which the milestone is located agreed to take responsibility for the plaque after it is dedicated? Yes No Has the owner of the site given permission to place an IEEE plaque? Yes No Year or range of years in which the achievement occurred: Title of the proposed milestone. (Include date or date range in title. Example: “Alternating Current Electrification, 1886”) Please provide a plaque citation in English summarizing the achievement and its significance. Text absolutely limited by plaque dimensions to 70 words; 60 is preferable for aesthetic reasons. NOTE: The IEEE History Committee shall have final determination on the wording of the citation. Names of living persons are not normally used in citations. Exceptions to this are cases where the person's name is linked to the achievement itself (e.g. the Lempel-Ziv algorithm, Maxwell's Equations, etc.) or where the person's name is so widely recognizeable to the general public that it makes sense to use it. When used, the names should be the names of the engineers, scientists, or technologists who actually made the achievement, rather than managers or executives. For more information and suggestions about writing milestone citations, please visit Helpful Hints on Citations, Plaque Locations. The Apple II spurred software and hardware suppliers to help create the worldwide personal computing industry. It was the first low-cost computer to offer quick start-up, pre-addressed standard expansion slots, processor RAM-based bit-mapped NTSC color graphics and random access storage in a handsome compact package. It had an economy of design with a BASIC interpreter and assembler in ROM as well as gaming and graphics features. In what IEEE section(s) will the milestone plaque(s) reside? Please specify the IEEE Organizational Unit(s) which have agreed to sponsor the Milestone, and supply name and contact information for the senior officer from those OU(s). Sponsorship has three aspects: 1) Payment for the cost of the plaque(s), 2) Arranging the dedication ceremony, and 3) agreeing to monitor the plaque and to let IEEE History Center staff know in case the plaque needs to be moved, is no longer secure, etc. Number 3 must be done by the IEEE Section(s) in which the plaque(s) is located, but aspects 1 and 2 can be done by any IEEE Organizational Unit, and they need not be the same one. Please note: your email address and contact information will be masked on the website for privacy reasons. Only IEEE History Center Staff will be able to view the email address. IEEE Organizational Unit(s) paying for milestone plaque(s) Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE Organizational Unit(s) arranging the dedication ceremony Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE section(s) monitoring the plaque IEEE Section: IEEE Section Chair name: IEEE Section Chair e-mail: IEEE Section: IEEE Section Chair name: IEEE Section Chair e-mail: Milestone proposer(s) Proposer name: Proposer email: Proposer name: Proposer email: Street address(es) and GPS coordinates of the intended milestone plaque site(s). Please include coordinates in decimal format rather than degrees. What is the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s) relation to the achievement? The intended site(s) must have a direct connection with the achievement (e.g. where developed, invented, tested, demonstrated, installed, or operated, etc.). A museum where a device or example of the technology is displayed, or the university where the inventor studied, are not, in themselves, sufficient connection for a milestone plaque. Also, please Describe briefly the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s). (e.g. Is it corporate buildings? Historic Site? Residential? Are there other historical markers already at the site?) Are the original buildings extant? Please provide the details of the mounting, i.e. on the outside of the building, in the ground floor entrance hall, on a plinth on the grounds, etc. How is the intended plaque site protected/secured, and in what ways is it accessible to the public? If visitors to the plaque site will need to go through security, or make an appointment, please give details as well as the contact information visitors will need in order to arrange to visit the plaque. Who is the present owner of the site(s)? In the space below, please describe in detail: the historic significance of the achievement, its importance to the evolution of electrical and computer engineering and science, its importance to regional/national/international development, its benefits to humanity, the ways the achievement was a significant advance rather than an incremental improvement of existing technology. The material submitted here will constitute the main descriptive article on the ETHW website for readers to learn about the milestone. Space is unlimited, and detail is encouraged. Most milestones require 1000 to 1500 words of support, however there is no word limit. The article should be readable by a wide audience that includes practicing engineers, scholars of history, and the general public. Some examples of the text of good milestone articles are First Radio Astronomical Observations Using Very Long Baseline Interferometry] and G3_Facsimile International Standardization of G3 Facsimile (Do not worry about the formatting of the page, IEEE History Center Staff will do that afterwards.) What is the historical significance of the work (its technological, scientific, or social importance)? The Apple II computer was the first widely successful personal computer. Introduced in 1977, it included bit-mapped graphics, viewable on a standard NTSC color television,(Ref. 1) eight slots for expansion cards, and a BASIC language interpreter and mini assembler that executed out of . The NTSC television data resided in the computer’s main memory, so blocks and pixels could be altered in microseconds without the need for a slower serial bus. Game paddles and sound were supported in the hardware, and the BASIC interpreter had game and graphics extensions tailored to the hardware. An important design feature was use of a switching power supply to reliably power up to eight expansion cards. These hardware and software features were packaged in a handsome case with a built-in keyboard, and a magnetic cassette interface to allow for cassette storage of programs and data.(Ref. 2) The computer was a true “garage operation.” Co-founders Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak borrowed money from friends to fund component and assembly costs in order to manufacture the product, initially out of the garage at the Los Altos, home of Steve Jobs and his parents. The resulting company established the first retail personal computer sales channels, and the resulting popularity of the product resulted in the growth and development of the personal . in 1978, Apple introduced the Disk II, a 5 ¼” floppy disk drive with an expansion slot controller card that effectively supplanted its original cassette tape drive. It was a design marvel of Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak’s in that it used just six low-cost chips as compared with the dozens of chips used by other floppy disk controllers that were then on the market. The six chips required special software that was included in the Apple DOS operating system in order to perform all of the operations necessary to fully support a fully functional floppy disk drive. The software was streamlined to run in a small footprint of the machine’s limited memory space. The Apple II with its unique floppy disk subsystem quickly became a popular platform for hobbyists and game creators, as well as for educational, research and business applications.(Ref. 3) The computer’s combination of software and hardware defined the general design and operation of all subsequent machines within the new personal . What obstacles (technical, political, geographic) needed to be overcome? Making a useful, low cost computer in the 1976-1977 timeframe was a challenge, but convincing people that a computer had a place in the home was a greater challenge. Creating a product that could meet people’s needs and that was ready to use, easily understandable and attractive took some time. In particular, creating standard expansion slots to enable easy modification and enhancement of the computer was much harder than the more common approach of a dedicated I/O channel designed independently of the computer. A key to rapid expansion of Apple II sales was the of software and expansion cards to make the device useful. The VisiCalc spreadsheet program ran on the Apple II, and created a demand beyond the needs of the computer hobbyist. Apple and other developed expansion cards which greatly expanded the original machine’s capabilities. The original Apple II stored programs and data on magnetic tape cassettes, but Steve Wozniak’s dramatic design improvements for the Disk II 5 ¼” floppy disk drive made software creation and distribution easier and cost-effective. As a consequence, the Apple II computer became more useful for business and professional use. There was no software industry to bootstrap the personal computer market until the Apple II. Because its BASIC interpreter, mini assembler and cassette interface were built into the machine from the outset, software was easy to develop. Demand for the Apple II swelled as software became available in the marketplace, and Apple Computer created an international distribution channel in response to this. In many regards, the initial growth of the personal that the Apple II initiated was based upon continuous development and distribution of products and services that had never before existed. What features set this work apart from similar achievements? What set the Apple II apart from all of its predecessors was the fact that it was a complete system: it consisted of built-in input (keyboard, cassette interface, and game paddles), built-in output (bit-mapped color graphics, sound and cassette interface), and built-in software that executed out of (monitor, BASIC interpreter and mini assembler). All of these components were included in a small, portable and attractive form-factor case that was usable with a standard color television set, and yet it was easily and inexpensively expandable. The NTSC color generation circuitry was subdivided for DRAM timing and processor timing using very few chips. Graphics displayed on the television screen were updated at processor speeds, due to every screen element being in memory. RAM refreshes were the result of constant video display accesses on the RAM.(Ref. 4) Color animated arcade games were easy to create for the Apple II, and as a consequence the computer game industry began. The motherboard was expandable from 4KB to 48KB, and its eight expansion slots for Z80-based cards allowed for upgrades from Apple and third parties. The phenomenal growth of the expansion card industry was due in large part to the fact that the cards was very easy to create – they only required a few chips to interface with the slot since most of the decoding circuitry was on the motherboard itself. In addition, thanks to a unique design from Allen Baum, each card had firmware space pre-decoded so that its driver could reside on the expansion card itself. The most popular expansion cards included memory expansion beyond 48 KB, software emulators, video cards, process accelerator cards, and peripheral interface cards. The Apple II computer was the first broadly successful personal computer, and it helped to create the personal , and future generations of microcomputer- based consumer electronic products.(Ref. 5) Supporting texts and citations to establish the dates, location, and importance of the achievement. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Minimum of five (5), but as many as needed to support the milestone, such as patents, contemporary newspaper articles, journal articles, or chapters in scholarly books. At least one of the references must be from a scholarly book or journal article. 'Scholarly' is defined as peer-reviewed, with references, and published. The full reference, in English, must be uploaded, not just the citation. See below section for details on uploading material to the website. All supporting materials must be in English, or accompanied by an English translation. #[[Media:US Patent 4136359 - Microcomputer for use with video display.pdf|US Patent No. 4,136,359]] to Wozniak, filed April 11, 1977, issued Jan. 23, 1979: Microcomputer For Use with Video Display. #1977 Apple II Advertisement. #Exploiting the Personal Computer in the Research Laboratory, R.C. Hallgren, IEEE Trans. on , Vol. BME-27, Issue 3, pp. 161-64. #System Description: The Apple II, Steve Wozniak, BYTE, Vol. 2, No. 5, May 1977. #Sophistication and Simplicity, Dr. Steven Weyhrich, Variant Press, 2013. Supporting materials (supported formats: GIF, JPEG, PNG, PDF, DOC) which can be made publicly available on the IEEE History Center’s website (i.e. unencumbered by copyright, or with the copyright holder’s permission). All supporting materials must be in English, or if not in English, accompanied by an English translation. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Images and photographs are especially appreciated, however, it is necessary that you list the copyright owner for these and obtain the copyright owner’s permission to reuse. For documents that are copyright-encumbered, or which you do not have rights to post, email the documents themselves to email@example.com. Please see the Milestone Program Guidelines for more information. To add attachments, first upload the file and add by adding the text: [[Media:(filename)]] For example, if the file you uploaded was named "Milestone Reference.pdf", include the text: [[Media:Milestone Reference.pdf]] in the appropriate field. #[[Media:The-Apple-II-by-Stephen-Wozniak.pdf]] #Bruce Newman, [[Media:SteveJobsHouseAndGarage.pdf|Steve Jobs' old garage about to become a piece of history]], San Jose Mercury News, Sept. 29, 2013 #[[Image:1977IntroAppleII1.jpg]] [[Image:1977IntroAppleII2.jpg]] Please email a jpeg or PDF a letter in English, or with English translation, from the site owner(s) giving permission to place IEEE milestone plaque on the property, and a letter (or forwarded email) from the appropriate Section Chair supporting the Milestone application to firstname.lastname@example.org with the subject line "Attention: Milestone Administrator." Note that there are multiple texts of the letter depending on whether an IEEE organizational unit other than the section will be paying for the plaque(s). Submit this proposal to the IEEE History Committee for review. Only check this when the proposal is finished Summary: This is a minor edit Watch this page Cancel Retrieved from "http://ieeemilestones.ethw.org/Milestone-Proposal:Introduction_of_the_Apple_II_Computer:_1977-1978"