Edit Proposal: Milestone-Proposal:First Industrial Scale Nuclear Reactor You do not have permission to edit this page, for the following reason: You are not currently logged in. The action you have requested is limited to users in the group: Users. Please log in or create an account. Docket ID: (admins only) Thank you for proposing a technical achievement for possible recognition as an IEEE Milestone in Electrical Engineering and Computing. Your efforts help preserve the heritage of technology. Detailed information on the Milestone application process may be found at: Milestone Guidelines and How to Propose a Milestone. At least one of the proposer(s) must be an IEEE Member (including Student Member) in good standing. To the proposer’s knowledge, is this achievement subject to litigation? If the answer is "yes", the proposal cannot proceed further. None Yes No You must be able to answer "yes" to all of the following questions. If the answer to any of the following questions is "no", the proposal cannot proceed further. Contact us at email@example.com if you are unable to answer "yes" to all of the following and would still like to proceed. Is the achievement you are proposing more than 25 years old? None Yes No Is the achievement you are proposing within IEEE’s designated fields as defined by IEEE Bylaw I-104.11, namely: Engineering, Computer Sciences and Information Technology, Physical Sciences, Biological and Medical Sciences, Mathematics, Technical Communications, Education, Management, and Law and Policy. None Yes No Did the achievement provide a meaningful benefit for humanity? None Yes No Was it of at least regional importance? None Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to pay for the milestone plaque(s)? None Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to arrange the dedication ceremony? None Yes No Has the IEEE Section in which the milestone is located agreed to take responsibility for the plaque after it is dedicated? None Yes No Has the owner of the site given permission to place an IEEE plaque? Yes No Year or range of years in which the achievement occurred: Title of the proposed milestone. (Include date or date range in title. Example: “Alternating Current Electrification, 1886”) Please provide a plaque citation in English summarizing the achievement and its significance. Text absolutely limited by plaque dimensions to 70 words; 60 is preferable for aesthetic reasons. NOTE: The IEEE History Committee shall have final determination on the wording of the citation. Names of living persons are not normally used in citations. Exceptions to this are cases where the person's name is linked to the achievement itself (e.g. the Lempel-Ziv algorithm, Maxwell's Equations, etc.) or where the person's name is so widely recognizeable to the general public that it makes sense to use it. When used, the names should be the names of the engineers, scientists, or technologists who actually made the achievement, rather than managers or executives. For more information and suggestions about writing milestone citations, please visit Helpful Hints on Citations, Plaque Locations. In what IEEE section(s) will the milestone plaque(s) reside? Please specify the IEEE Organizational Unit(s) which have agreed to sponsor the Milestone, and supply name and contact information for the senior officer from those OU(s). Sponsorship has three aspects: 1) Payment for the cost of the plaque(s), 2) Arranging the dedication ceremony, and 3) agreeing to monitor the plaque and to let IEEE History Center staff know in case the plaque needs to be moved, is no longer secure, etc. Number 3 must be done by the IEEE Section(s) in which the plaque(s) is located, but aspects 1 and 2 can be done by any IEEE Organizational Unit, and they need not be the same one. Please note: your email address and contact information will be masked on the website for privacy reasons. Only IEEE History Center Staff will be able to view the email address. IEEE Organizational Unit(s) paying for milestone plaque(s) Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE Organizational Unit(s) arranging the dedication ceremony Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE section(s) monitoring the plaque IEEE Section: IEEE Section Chair name: IEEE Section Chair e-mail: IEEE Section: IEEE Section Chair name: IEEE Section Chair e-mail: Milestone proposer(s) Proposer name: Proposer email: Proposer name: Proposer email: Street address(es) and GPS coordinates of the intended milestone plaque site(s). Please include coordinates in decimal format rather than degrees. What is the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s) relation to the achievement? The intended site(s) must have a direct connection with the achievement (e.g. where developed, invented, tested, demonstrated, installed, or operated, etc.). A museum where a device or example of the technology is displayed, or the university where the inventor studied, are not, in themselves, sufficient connection for a milestone plaque. Also, please Describe briefly the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s). (e.g. Is it corporate buildings? Historic Site? Residential? Are there other historical markers already at the site?) Are the original buildings extant? Please provide the details of the mounting, i.e. on the outside of the building, in the ground floor entrance hall, on a plinth on the grounds, etc. How is the intended plaque site protected/secured, and in what ways is it accessible to the public? If visitors to the plaque site will need to go through security, or make an appointment, please give details as well as the contact information visitors will need in order to arrange to visit the plaque. Who is the present owner of the site(s)? In the space below, please describe in detail: the historic significance of the achievement, its importance to the evolution of electrical and computer engineering and science, its importance to regional/national/international development, its benefits to humanity, the ways the achievement was a significant advance rather than an incremental improvement of existing technology. The material submitted here will constitute the main descriptive article on the ETHW website for readers to learn about the milestone. Space is unlimited, and detail is encouraged. Most milestones require 1000 to 1500 words of support, however there is no word limit. The article should be readable by a wide audience that includes practicing engineers, scholars of history, and the general public. Some examples of the text of good milestone articles are First Radio Astronomical Observations Using Very Long Baseline Interferometry] and G3_Facsimile International Standardization of G3 Facsimile (Do not worry about the formatting of the page, IEEE History Center Staff will do that afterwards.) What is the historical significance of the work (its technological, scientific, or social importance)? The B Reactor was the world’s first, full-scale nuclear reactor and produced the plutonium used in the “Fat Man” bomb dropped over Nagasaki, Japan, in August of 1945. Five days after that bomb was deployed, World War II ended. B Reactor is an engineering marvel that was built in only thirteen months (1943-1944). As the world’s first nuclear reactor, drawings and blueprints were being developed at the same time the reactor was being constructed. It wasn’t unusual for crews to be given hand-written notes or sketches to guide them during the construction process. Many of the specialized tools needed for the project hadn’t been invented, so Hanford crews often designed and built their own tools. Since there were no computers when the reactor was being built, calculations for the project were done using slide rules or a pencil and paper! In addition, since the construction work at Hanford was taking place as World War II was being fought, all of the work to build B Reactor and the other facilities at the Site was done in secret. While more than 50,000 construction workers were brought to Hanford to build these facilities, very few of them -- less than 1% -- knew exactly what they were building. The crews were told not to discuss their work with anyone. They knew that they were involved with “important war work”, but they weren’t told anything else. Construction workers knew only their job assignments, and didn’t ask questions about the work other workers were doing or developments in other facilities on the Site. Those who did ask were often relieved of their duties at Hanford and sent elsewhere. The Du Pont Corporation was the main contractor during construction of the reactor, agreeing with the United States government to build the reactor – and indeed the whole Hanford Engineer Works -- for costs plus $1. As Du Pont’s team completed the project early, they were only paid 67-cents profit for the project! B Reactor When the B Reactor began operating in September, 1944, about 64,000 rods of metallic uranium, known as fuel elements, were placed inside the reactor’s core. For about six weeks, these elements were subjected to a nuclear chain reaction (self-sustaining bombardment with neutrons) wherein some of the uranium changed its composition and yielded a small amount of the element plutonium. After the six weeks, these fuel elements had become very radioactive . They needed to be removed to preserve the plutonium isotope (form) needed for a weapon. The elements were pushed out the back side of the reactor into a pool of water where they cooled and some of the radioactivity decayed away. The fuel elements were eventually taken by train from the B Reactor to the separations processing facilities in the 200 Area where the plutonium was removed from them. Interestingly, when the reactor first began operating in 1944, it didn’t work very well. The original specifications called for the reactor to use 1,500 process tubes filled with uranium fuel, but it was discovered that 1,500 process tubes of fuel would not sustain the nuclear chain reaction. With only the 1,500 tubes filled, another element called xenon was “poisoning” the reaction by capturing too many neutrons. This “poison” shut down the reactor prematurely. When crews filled another 504 process tubes in the reactor with fuel, the extra fuel elements made up for the xenon poisoning, and sustained the nuclear chain reaction, thus successfully producing plutonium. B Reactor B Reactor There were no moving parts inside the B Reactor, and the only sounds that could be heard during the reactor’s operation were the movements of millions of gallons of Columbia River water rushing through the reactor to cool it. The reactor also didn’t need many people to operate it, so a typical crew numbered less than twenty. The B Reactor produced plutonium for more than twenty years. It was shut down in February,1968, and was later scheduled to be “cocooned” like the other reactors at Hanford. (Cocooning is a process by which the reactor core is encased in a concrete shell for 75 years to allow the radioactivity to decay away.) However, in August 2008, the United States Department of the Interior designated the B Reactor as a National Historic Landmark. --Excerpt from DOE Hanford Web Page What obstacles (technical, political, geographic) needed to be overcome? Top Secret construction site. Accelerated construction effort. Operation principles developed in concurrence with construction. What features set this work apart from similar achievements? First full scale production nuclear reactor that produced the Plutonium 239 for use in the first nuclear bomb test (Trinity) and subsequent military use (Fat Man) in the bombing of Nagasaki, Japan during WWII. Discovery of Xenon poisoning by Enrico Fermi. Supporting texts and citations to establish the dates, location, and importance of the achievement. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Minimum of five (5), but as many as needed to support the milestone, such as patents, contemporary newspaper articles, journal articles, or chapters in scholarly books. At least one of the references must be from a scholarly book or journal article. 'Scholarly' is defined as peer-reviewed, with references, and published. The full reference, in English, must be uploaded, not just the citation. See below section for details on uploading material to the website. All supporting materials must be in English, or accompanied by an English translation. Supporting materials (supported formats: GIF, JPEG, PNG, PDF, DOC) which can be made publicly available on the IEEE History Center’s website (i.e. unencumbered by copyright, or with the copyright holder’s permission). All supporting materials must be in English, or if not in English, accompanied by an English translation. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Images and photographs are especially appreciated, however, it is necessary that you list the copyright owner for these and obtain the copyright owner’s permission to reuse. For documents that are copyright-encumbered, or which you do not have rights to post, email the documents themselves to firstname.lastname@example.org. Please see the Milestone Program Guidelines for more information. To add attachments, first upload the file and add by adding the text: [[Media:(filename)]] For example, if the file you uploaded was named "Milestone Reference.pdf", include the text: [[Media:Milestone Reference.pdf]] in the appropriate field. Please email a jpeg or PDF a letter in English, or with English translation, from the site owner(s) giving permission to place IEEE milestone plaque on the property, and a letter (or forwarded email) from the appropriate Section Chair supporting the Milestone application to email@example.com with the subject line "Attention: Milestone Administrator." Note that there are multiple texts of the letter depending on whether an IEEE organizational unit other than the section will be paying for the plaque(s). Submit this proposal to the IEEE History Committee for review. 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