Edit Proposal: Milestone-Proposal:Fiber optic connectors You do not have permission to edit this page, for the following reason: You are not currently logged in. The action you have requested is limited to users in the group: Users. Please log in or create an account. Docket ID: (admins only) Thank you for proposing a technical achievement for possible recognition as an IEEE Milestone in Electrical Engineering and Computing. Your efforts help preserve the heritage of technology. Detailed information on the Milestone application process may be found at: Milestone Guidelines and How to Propose a Milestone. At least one of the proposer(s) must be an IEEE Member (including Student Member) in good standing. To the proposer’s knowledge, is this achievement subject to litigation? If the answer is "yes", the proposal cannot proceed further. Yes No You must be able to answer "yes" to all of the following questions. If the answer to any of the following questions is "no", the proposal cannot proceed further. Contact us at email@example.com if you are unable to answer "yes" to all of the following and would still like to proceed. Is the achievement you are proposing more than 25 years old? Yes No Is the achievement you are proposing within IEEE’s designated fields as defined by IEEE Bylaw I-104.11, namely: Engineering, Computer Sciences and Information Technology, Physical Sciences, Biological and Medical Sciences, Mathematics, Technical Communications, Education, Management, and Law and Policy. Yes No Did the achievement provide a meaningful benefit for humanity? Yes No Was it of at least regional importance? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to pay for the milestone plaque(s)? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to arrange the dedication ceremony? Yes No Has the IEEE Section in which the milestone is located agreed to take responsibility for the plaque after it is dedicated? Yes No Has the owner of the site given permission to place an IEEE plaque? Yes No Year or range of years in which the achievement occurred: Title of the proposed milestone. (Include date or date range in title. Example: “Alternating Current Electrification, 1886”) Please provide a plaque citation in English summarizing the achievement and its significance. Text absolutely limited by plaque dimensions to 70 words; 60 is preferable for aesthetic reasons. NOTE: The IEEE History Committee shall have final determination on the wording of the citation. Names of living persons are not normally used in citations. Exceptions to this are cases where the person's name is linked to the achievement itself (e.g. the Lempel-Ziv algorithm, Maxwell's Equations, etc.) or where the person's name is so widely recognizeable to the general public that it makes sense to use it. When used, the names should be the names of the engineers, scientists, or technologists who actually made the achievement, rather than managers or executives. For more information and suggestions about writing milestone citations, please visit Helpful Hints on Citations, Plaque Locations. In 1986, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp. (NTT) invented the physical contact connection technology that advanced performance and reliability of fiber optic connectors. NTT developed Single-fiber Coupling (SC) and Multifiber Push-On (MPO) connectors; their compactness and simple push-pull operation were major advantages. Widely adopted by carriers and data centers since 1990, this technology facilitated the construction of systems for near light-speed, digital, global communications. In what IEEE section(s) will the milestone plaque(s) reside? Please specify the IEEE Organizational Unit(s) which have agreed to sponsor the Milestone, and supply name and contact information for the senior officer from those OU(s). Sponsorship has three aspects: 1) Payment for the cost of the plaque(s), 2) Arranging the dedication ceremony, and 3) agreeing to monitor the plaque and to let IEEE History Center staff know in case the plaque needs to be moved, is no longer secure, etc. Number 3 must be done by the IEEE Section(s) in which the plaque(s) is located, but aspects 1 and 2 can be done by any IEEE Organizational Unit, and they need not be the same one. Please note: your email address and contact information will be masked on the website for privacy reasons. Only IEEE History Center Staff will be able to view the email address. IEEE Organizational Unit(s) paying for milestone plaque(s) Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE Organizational Unit(s) arranging the dedication ceremony Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE section(s) monitoring the plaque IEEE Section: IEEE Section Chair name: IEEE Section Chair e-mail: IEEE Section: IEEE Section Chair name: IEEE Section Chair e-mail: Milestone proposer(s) Proposer name: Proposer email: Proposer name: Proposer email: Proposer name: Proposer email: Street address(es) and GPS coordinates of the intended milestone plaque site(s). Please include coordinates in decimal format rather than degrees. What is the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s) relation to the achievement? The intended site(s) must have a direct connection with the achievement (e.g. where developed, invented, tested, demonstrated, installed, or operated, etc.). A museum where a device or example of the technology is displayed, or the university where the inventor studied, are not, in themselves, sufficient connection for a milestone plaque. Also, please Describe briefly the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s). (e.g. Is it corporate buildings? Historic Site? Residential? Are there other historical markers already at the site?) Are the original buildings extant? Please provide the details of the mounting, i.e. on the outside of the building, in the ground floor entrance hall, on a plinth on the grounds, etc. How is the intended plaque site protected/secured, and in what ways is it accessible to the public? If visitors to the plaque site will need to go through security, or make an appointment, please give details as well as the contact information visitors will need in order to arrange to visit the plaque. Who is the present owner of the site(s)? In the space below, please describe in detail: the historic significance of the achievement, its importance to the evolution of electrical and computer engineering and science, its importance to regional/national/international development, its benefits to humanity, the ways the achievement was a significant advance rather than an incremental improvement of existing technology. The material submitted here will constitute the main descriptive article on the ETHW website for readers to learn about the milestone. Space is unlimited, and detail is encouraged. Most milestones require 1000 to 1500 words of support, however there is no word limit. The article should be readable by a wide audience that includes practicing engineers, scholars of history, and the general public. Some examples of the text of good milestone articles are First Radio Astronomical Observations Using Very Long Baseline Interferometry] and G3_Facsimile International Standardization of G3 Facsimile (Do not worry about the formatting of the page, IEEE History Center Staff will do that afterwards.) What is the historical significance of the work (its technological, scientific, or social importance)? A fiber optic connector, which makes it possible to connect/disconnect optical fiber, is an indispensable device when constructing optical fiber network systems. The connector connects optical fibers by butt-jointing ferrules that have a high precision hole in which an optical fiber is fixed in place with adhesive. In the history of the development of the fiber optic connector, the physical contact (PC) connection technology invented by NTT has been fundamental in supporting the performance and reliability of the current commercially available fiber optic connectors. Before the PC connection was invented, refractive index matching material was applied to the fiber endface to suppress the Fresnel reflection induced by the air gap between connected fibers. However, if the connection must be performed repeatedly, it is better to eliminate the need for refractive index matching material. To meet this requirement, NTT invented the PC connection where fiber endfaces are brought into direct contact by pressing ferrules together. The PC connection reduces the reflected light power to about 1/1000 of the signal light power at the connection point and achieves a stable loss of less than 0.5 dB without the need for refractive index matching material. Fiber optic connectors can be divided into two types: simplex and multiplex. NTT used PC connection technology to develop an SC connector and an MPO connector as representative simplex and multiplex connectors. The SC and MPO connectors have a push-pull coupling mechanism that makes it possible to connect/disconnect a plug and an adapter by pushing/pulling the coupling sleeve in the insertion/removal direction. The plug cannot be removed from the adapter simply by pulling the optical fiber. On the other hand, the plug can be easily removed from the adapter by pulling the coupling sleeve. Before the push-pull coupling mechanism was invented, the plug was coupled with the adapter by rotating a coupling nut with the fingers. From the 1980s to the 1990s, a connector was required that could realize a high-density connection at low cost for access network systems. Conventional connectors such as the FC and ST connectors did not satisfy these requirements because they need a large space to allow the coupling nut to be rotated with the fingers. The push-pull coupling mechanism enables us to realize high-density connection with superior operability. What obstacles (technical, political, geographic) needed to be overcome? In the 1980s, increasing the transmission capacity for optical fiber networks required the development of a less reflective optical connector with smaller loss variation. To meet these performance requirements, with the early connectors refractive index matching material had to be applied to the fiber endface to suppress the Fresnel reflection induced by the air gap between the connected fibers. However, to perform repeated connections, it was desirable to eliminate the use of refractive index matching material for the optical connector. From the 1980s to the 1990s, the connector was required to realize high-density connection and low cost for access network systems. The FC and ST connectors did not satisfy these requirements because they needed a large space to allow a coupling nut to be rotated with the fingers, and they use an expensive ceramic ferrule. Moreover, a compact multifiber connector for optical fiber cable joints was needed to connect two sets of fiber ribbons together in a confined space such as the closure used for access network systems. What features set this work apart from similar achievements? In 1985, NTT completed an optical fiber network over a distance of 2000 km from Hokkaido to Kyushu in Japan. The FC connector developed by NTT in 1979 was used to construct the above-mentioned optical fiber network. In 1985, the ST connector was developed by AT&T. These early connectors required the application of refractive index matching material to the fiber endface to suppress the Fresnel reflection induced by the air gap between the connected fibers. In these connectors, the plug was coupled with the adapter by rotating a coupling nut with the fingers. In 1986, NTT developed a mechanically transferable (MT) connector for optical fiber cable joints. This was needed to connect two sets of fiber ribbons together in a confined space such as the closure used for access network systems. In the MT connector, the fiber ribbon is inserted into a row of fiber holes between two guide holes and fixed in place with adhesive. The ferrules are aligned by inserting two guide pins into two guide holes. The coupled ferrules are held together with a clamp spring. Refractive index matching material is used between the ferrule endfaces to reduce the Fresnel reflection caused by the air-gap between the connected fibers. The PC connection enables us to perform the connection repeatedly with excellent optical performance, environmental durability, and operability without the use of refractive index matching material. Most major connectors that have been standardized and are now in practical use employ PC connection technology. The SC connector, which provides the PC connection, has a plastic-molded rectangular housing with a unique push-pull coupling mechanism that makes the connector easy to operate and provides a quad connection density comparable to that of the FC connector. The push-pull mechanism that employs the plastic molded parts helped to reduce the cost of manufacturing the connector. The SC connector share of the worldwide market reached its maximum of 70 % in 1999. The multifiber push-on (MPO) connector using the PC connection enables us to achieve a high return loss without using refractive index matching material. The MPO connector with a push-pull mechanism also provides ease of operation when connecting or disconnecting multifiber. Only the MPO connector is in widespread use as a standard multifiber PC connector. Supporting texts and citations to establish the dates, location, and importance of the achievement. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Minimum of five (5), but as many as needed to support the milestone, such as patents, contemporary newspaper articles, journal articles, or chapters in scholarly books. At least one of the references must be from a scholarly book or journal article. 'Scholarly' is defined as peer-reviewed, with references, and published. The full reference, in English, must be uploaded, not just the citation. See below section for details on uploading material to the website. All supporting materials must be in English, or accompanied by an English translation. <Technical papers>  N. Suzuki, M. Saruwatari, and M. Okuyama, “Low insertion- and high return-loss optical connectors with spherically convex-polished end,” Electron. Lett., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 110-112, 1986.  E. Sugita, K Iwasa, and T. Shintaku, “Design of High-Performance Push-Pull Coupling Optical Fiber Connector” IEICE Trans. Electron.(Japanese Edition), vol. J70-C, no. 10, pp. 1405-1414, 1987.  E. Sugita, R. Nagase, K. Kanayama, and T. Shintaku, “SC-type single-mode optical fiber connectors,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 1689-1696, 1989.  S. Nagasawa, Izumi Sankawa, T. Satake, amd N. Kashima, “Small-Size Push-on Type Optical Fiber Connector,” The Transactions of The IEICE, vol. E70, No. 5, pp. 451-454, 1987.  S. Nagasawa, Y. Yokoyama, F. Ashiya, and T. Satake, “A Sigle-mode Multifiber Push-on connector with Low Insertion- and High Return Losses,” ECOC 1991, MoB1-7, pp. 49-52, 1991. <Patents>  Japan Patent JPA 1987106419, “Fiber optic connector”.  Japan Patent JPA 1987078507, “Optical connector”.  Japan Patent JPA 1992336509, “Multi-fiber optical connector plug”.  Japan Patent JPA 1993034550, “Multi-fiber optical connector”. <Standards>  IEC 61754-4, Fibre Optic connector interfaces – Part 4: Type SC connector family  IEC 61754-7-1, Fibre Optic connector interfaces - Part 7-1: Type MPO connector family - One fibre row  IEC 61754-7-2, Fibre Optic connector interfaces - Part 7-2: Type MPO connector family - Two fibre rows  IEC 61755-3-1, Fibre Optic connector optical interfaces – Part 3-1: Optical interface, 2,5 mm and 1,25 mm diameter cylindrical full zirconia PC ferrule, single mode fibre  IEC 61755-3-31, Fibre Optic connector optical interfaces – Part 3-31: Optical interface, 8 degrees angled PC, ployphenylene sulphide rectangular ferrule, single mode fibres  IEC 61755-3-32, Fibre Optic connector optical interfaces – Part 3-32: Optical interface, 8 degrees angled PC, thermoset epoxy rectangular ferrule, single mode fibres Supporting materials (supported formats: GIF, JPEG, PNG, PDF, DOC) which can be made publicly available on the IEEE History Center’s website (i.e. unencumbered by copyright, or with the copyright holder’s permission). All supporting materials must be in English, or if not in English, accompanied by an English translation. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Images and photographs are especially appreciated, however, it is necessary that you list the copyright owner for these and obtain the copyright owner’s permission to reuse. For documents that are copyright-encumbered, or which you do not have rights to post, email the documents themselves to firstname.lastname@example.org. Please see the Milestone Program Guidelines for more information. To add attachments, first upload the file and add by adding the text: [[Media:(filename)]] For example, if the file you uploaded was named "Milestone Reference.pdf", include the text: [[Media:Milestone Reference.pdf]] in the appropriate field. Please email a jpeg or PDF a letter in English, or with English translation, from the site owner(s) giving permission to place IEEE milestone plaque on the property, and a letter (or forwarded email) from the appropriate Section Chair supporting the Milestone application to email@example.com with the subject line "Attention: Milestone Administrator." Note that there are multiple texts of the letter depending on whether an IEEE organizational unit other than the section will be paying for the plaque(s). Submit this proposal to the IEEE History Committee for review. Only check this when the proposal is finished Summary: This is a minor edit Watch this page Cancel Retrieved from "http://ieeemilestones.ethw.org/Milestone-Proposal:Fiber_optic_connectors"