Edit Proposal: Milestone-Proposal:Ferraris You do not have permission to edit this page, for the following reason: You are not currently logged in. The action you have requested is limited to users in the group: Users. Please log in or create an account. Docket ID: (admins only) Thank you for proposing a technical achievement for possible recognition as an IEEE Milestone in Electrical Engineering and Computing. Your efforts help preserve the heritage of technology. Detailed information on the Milestone application process may be found at: Milestone Guidelines and How to Propose a Milestone. At least one of the proposer(s) must be an IEEE Member (including Student Member) in good standing. To the proposer’s knowledge, is this achievement subject to litigation? If the answer is "yes", the proposal cannot proceed further. Yes No You must be able to answer "yes" to all of the following questions. If the answer to any of the following questions is "no", the proposal cannot proceed further. Contact us at email@example.com if you are unable to answer "yes" to all of the following and would still like to proceed. Is the achievement you are proposing more than 25 years old? Yes No Is the achievement you are proposing within IEEE’s designated fields as defined by IEEE Bylaw I-104.11, namely: Engineering, Computer Sciences and Information Technology, Physical Sciences, Biological and Medical Sciences, Mathematics, Technical Communications, Education, Management, and Law and Policy. Yes No Did the achievement provide a meaningful benefit for humanity? Yes No Was it of at least regional importance? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to pay for the milestone plaque(s)? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to arrange the dedication ceremony? Yes No Has the IEEE Section in which the milestone is located agreed to take responsibility for the plaque after it is dedicated? Yes No Has the owner of the site given permission to place an IEEE plaque? Yes No Year or range of years in which the achievement occurred: Title of the proposed milestone. (Include date or date range in title. Example: “Alternating Current Electrification, 1886”) Please provide a plaque citation in English summarizing the achievement and its significance. Text absolutely limited by plaque dimensions to 70 words; 60 is preferable for aesthetic reasons. NOTE: The IEEE History Committee shall have final determination on the wording of the citation. Names of living persons are not normally used in citations. Exceptions to this are cases where the person's name is linked to the achievement itself (e.g. the Lempel-Ziv algorithm, Maxwell's Equations, etc.) or where the person's name is so widely recognizeable to the general public that it makes sense to use it. When used, the names should be the names of the engineers, scientists, or technologists who actually made the achievement, rather than managers or executives. For more information and suggestions about writing milestone citations, please visit Helpful Hints on Citations, Plaque Locations. Galileo Ferraris, professor at the Italian Industrial Museum (now Polytechnic) of Turin, conceived and demonstrated the principle of the rotating magnetic field. Ferraris' field, produced by two stationary coils with perpendicular axes, was driven by alternating currents phase-shifted by 90 degrees. Ferraris also constructed prototypes of two-phase AC motors. Rotating fields, polyphase currents, and their application to induction motors had a fundamental role in the electrification of the world. In what IEEE section(s) will the milestone plaque(s) reside? Please specify the IEEE Organizational Unit(s) which have agreed to sponsor the Milestone, and supply name and contact information for the senior officer from those OU(s). Sponsorship has three aspects: 1) Payment for the cost of the plaque(s), 2) Arranging the dedication ceremony, and 3) agreeing to monitor the plaque and to let IEEE History Center staff know in case the plaque needs to be moved, is no longer secure, etc. Number 3 must be done by the IEEE Section(s) in which the plaque(s) is located, but aspects 1 and 2 can be done by any IEEE Organizational Unit, and they need not be the same one. Please note: your email address and contact information will be masked on the website for privacy reasons. Only IEEE History Center Staff will be able to view the email address. IEEE Organizational Unit(s) paying for milestone plaque(s) Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE Organizational Unit(s) arranging the dedication ceremony Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE section(s) monitoring the plaque IEEE Section: IEEE Section Chair name: IEEE Section Chair e-mail: IEEE Section: IEEE Section Chair name: IEEE Section Chair e-mail: Milestone proposer(s) Proposer name: Proposer email: Proposer name: Proposer email: Street address(es) and GPS coordinates of the intended milestone plaque site(s). Please include coordinates in decimal format rather than degrees. What is the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s) relation to the achievement? The intended site(s) must have a direct connection with the achievement (e.g. where developed, invented, tested, demonstrated, installed, or operated, etc.). A museum where a device or example of the technology is displayed, or the university where the inventor studied, are not, in themselves, sufficient connection for a milestone plaque. Also, please Describe briefly the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s). (e.g. Is it corporate buildings? Historic Site? Residential? Are there other historical markers already at the site?) Are the original buildings extant? Please provide the details of the mounting, i.e. on the outside of the building, in the ground floor entrance hall, on a plinth on the grounds, etc. How is the intended plaque site protected/secured, and in what ways is it accessible to the public? If visitors to the plaque site will need to go through security, or make an appointment, please give details as well as the contact information visitors will need in order to arrange to visit the plaque. Who is the present owner of the site(s)? In the space below, please describe in detail: the historic significance of the achievement, its importance to the evolution of electrical and computer engineering and science, its importance to regional/national/international development, its benefits to humanity, the ways the achievement was a significant advance rather than an incremental improvement of existing technology. The material submitted here will constitute the main descriptive article on the ETHW website for readers to learn about the milestone. Space is unlimited, and detail is encouraged. Most milestones require 1000 to 1500 words of support, however there is no word limit. The article should be readable by a wide audience that includes practicing engineers, scholars of history, and the general public. Some examples of the text of good milestone articles are First Radio Astronomical Observations Using Very Long Baseline Interferometry] and G3_Facsimile International Standardization of G3 Facsimile (Do not worry about the formatting of the page, IEEE History Center Staff will do that afterwards.) What is the historical significance of the work (its technological, scientific, or social importance)? Galileo Ferraris (1847 – 1897) was an Italian engineer and scientist. After graduation in civil engineering in Turin he joined the Italian Industrial Museum ( now Technical University) of Turin where in 1877 he became professor of technical physics. His initial studies concerned mechanics, geometrical optics and theory of heat. In 1881 he took part in the International Electrical Exhibition of Paris and was attracted by the emerging field of electrical technology. Three years later he was charged to organize the electric section of the Italian General Exhibition in Turin where Lucient Goulard and John Gibbs presented their secondary generators. On that occasion Galileo Ferraris employed these new machines, later called transformers, for the first experiment of long-distance transmission of AC power from Lanzo to Turin ( 40 km, 20 kV, 2 kW, 133 Hz). One of his scientific achievements is the description of the operation of transformers using Maxwell's theory. Inspired by his studies on the optical phase difference in light waves, starting from 1885 Galileo Ferraris conceived the idea of generating a rotating magnetic field by means of alternating currents and, consequently the production of a mechanical rotation using alternating currents without commutation unlike previously done. What obstacles (technical, political, geographic) needed to be overcome? To the purpose of verifying his idea Galileo Ferraris built various laboratory prototypes of induction motors where a conducting cylinder was rotating under the effect of a magnetic field produced by two stationary coils with axes at right angle and supplied by two alternating currents out of phase one with another. The principle of operation of the rotating magnetic field (Ferraris' field) was explained by him in a masterly way in a memory presented at the Turin Academy of Science in March 1888. The late publication of the results of his studies in a memory written in Italian was among the reasons of a controversy with Nikola Tesla who got a patent for an induction motor in December 1888. As a matter of fact, Galileo Ferraris never patented his invention: he was a scientist, not an entrepreneur. He wrote “ I am attracted by the scientific aspect of inventions more than by the industrial one, by the intellectual achievement more than by the practical exploitation” For his small-size motor which he called “the toy”, he predicted the use in the field of instrumentation rather than of power. Nevertheless it cannot be denied that he established the basic principle of operation of the induction motor which has become the major device converting electric into mechanical power. Additionally, this type of motor, normally fed by three-phase AC current, paved the way to the success of three-phase electric power. No original motor built by Ferraris still exists because most of them were destroyed by a fire in 1899 and the remaining ones by bombs during the world war two. Galileo Ferraris was the first President of the Associazione Elettrotecnica Italiana ( Association of Italian Electrical engineers) established in 1896. He died at the age of 50. What features set this work apart from similar achievements? The Ferraris motor represents a remarkable step forward in electrical technology because it showed the optimal solution for the conversion of electric power in mechanical power by using AC two-phase or three-phase systems. This fact also determined the end of the dispute between direct current and alternating current in industrial applicationsin favour of the latter. As early as 1891, at the International Electrotechnical Exhibition in Frankfurt Galileo Ferraris was hailed as “the father of the three-phase system”. In Europe he is unanimously recognized as the inventor of the induction motor and the leader of AC power transmission.” Both for his contribution to electrical engineering and for his work to make the benefits of electricity widely available, Galileo Ferraris deserves to be remembered as one of the great names in our profession” (B. Bowers) Supporting texts and citations to establish the dates, location, and importance of the achievement. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Minimum of five (5), but as many as needed to support the milestone, such as patents, contemporary newspaper articles, journal articles, or chapters in scholarly books. At least one of the references must be from a scholarly book or journal article. 'Scholarly' is defined as peer-reviewed, with references, and published. The full reference, in English, must be uploaded, not just the citation. See below section for details on uploading material to the website. All supporting materials must be in English, or accompanied by an English translation. [[Media:1-Galileo Ferraris Rotating-field--Rotazioni Elettrodinamiche.pdf|1 Galileo Ferraris, Rotazioni elettrodinamiche prodotte per mezzo di correnti alternate (Electrodynamic rotations by means of alternating currents), memory read at Accademia delle Scienze, Torino, March 1888 in Opere di Galileo Ferraris, Hoepli, Milano,1902 vol I pp 333-348]] [[Media:Thompson.pdf|2.Silvanus P. Thompson, A letter to Galileo Ferraris,25 October 1896]] [[Media:Dunsheat.pdf|3. Percy Dunsheat, A History of Electric Power Engineering, The MIT Press, 1962, p. 188]] [[Media:Bowers2.pdf|4.Brian Bowers, A History of Electric Light & Power, Peter Peregrinus, 1982, p. 255]] [[Media:Bowers.pdf|5.Brian Bowers, Galileo Ferraris and Alternating Current, IEEE Proc, vol. 89, n.5, May 2001, pp. 790-792]] [[Media:Tartaglia.pdf|6. M. Mitolo, M.Tartaglia, Galileo Ferraris: A Life Dedicated to the Electrical Sciences, IEEE Industry Appl. Magazine, 2016, pp 8-11]] Supporting materials (supported formats: GIF, JPEG, PNG, PDF, DOC) which can be made publicly available on the IEEE History Center’s website (i.e. unencumbered by copyright, or with the copyright holder’s permission). All supporting materials must be in English, or if not in English, accompanied by an English translation. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Images and photographs are especially appreciated, however, it is necessary that you list the copyright owner for these and obtain the copyright owner’s permission to reuse. For documents that are copyright-encumbered, or which you do not have rights to post, email the documents themselves to firstname.lastname@example.org. Please see the Milestone Program Guidelines for more information. To add attachments, first upload the file and add by adding the text: [[Media:(filename)]] For example, if the file you uploaded was named "Milestone Reference.pdf", include the text: [[Media:Milestone Reference.pdf]] in the appropriate field. The supporting material is also provided in the transmisson letter sent by e-mail together with the Support letter and the Owner letter. Please email a jpeg or PDF a letter in English, or with English translation, from the site owner(s) giving permission to place IEEE milestone plaque on the property, and a letter (or forwarded email) from the appropriate Section Chair supporting the Milestone application to email@example.com with the subject line "Attention: Milestone Administrator." Note that there are multiple texts of the letter depending on whether an IEEE organizational unit other than the section will be paying for the plaque(s). Submit this proposal to the IEEE History Committee for review. 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