Edit Proposal: Milestone-Proposal:BASIC You do not have permission to edit this page, for the following reason: You are not currently logged in. The action you have requested is limited to users in the group: Users. Please log in or create an account. Docket ID: (admins only) Thank you for proposing a technical achievement for possible recognition as an IEEE Milestone in Electrical Engineering and Computing. Your efforts help preserve the heritage of technology. Detailed information on the Milestone application process may be found at: Milestone Guidelines and How to Propose a Milestone. At least one of the proposer(s) must be an IEEE Member (including Student Member) in good standing. To the proposer’s knowledge, is this achievement subject to litigation? If the answer is "yes", the proposal cannot proceed further. Yes No You must be able to answer "yes" to all of the following questions. If the answer to any of the following questions is "no", the proposal cannot proceed further. Contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org if you are unable to answer "yes" to all of the following and would still like to proceed. Is the achievement you are proposing more than 25 years old? Yes No Is the achievement you are proposing within IEEE’s designated fields as defined by IEEE Bylaw I-104.11, namely: Engineering, Computer Sciences and Information Technology, Physical Sciences, Biological and Medical Sciences, Mathematics, Technical Communications, Education, Management, and Law and Policy. Yes No Did the achievement provide a meaningful benefit for humanity? Yes No Was it of at least regional importance? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to pay for the milestone plaque(s)? Yes No Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to arrange the dedication ceremony? Yes No Has the IEEE Section in which the milestone is located agreed to take responsibility for the plaque after it is dedicated? Yes No Has the owner of the site given permission to place an IEEE plaque? Yes No Year or range of years in which the achievement occurred: Title of the proposed milestone. (Include date or date range in title. Example: “Alternating Current Electrification, 1886”) Please provide a plaque citation in English summarizing the achievement and its significance. Text absolutely limited by plaque dimensions to 70 words; 60 is preferable for aesthetic reasons. NOTE: The IEEE History Committee shall have final determination on the wording of the citation. Names of living persons are not normally used in citations. Exceptions to this are cases where the person's name is linked to the achievement itself (e.g. the Lempel-Ziv algorithm, Maxwell's Equations, etc.) or where the person's name is so widely recognizeable to the general public that it makes sense to use it. When used, the names should be the names of the engineers, scientists, or technologists who actually made the achievement, rather than managers or executives. For more information and suggestions about writing milestone citations, please visit Helpful Hints on Citations, Plaque Locations. Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) was created in this building. During the mid-1970s and 1980s, BASIC was the principal programming language used on early microcomputers. Its simplicity and wide acceptance made it useful in fields beyond science and mathematics, and enabled more people to harness the power of computation. In what IEEE section(s) will the milestone plaque(s) reside? Please specify the IEEE Organizational Unit(s) which have agreed to sponsor the Milestone, and supply name and contact information for the senior officer from those OU(s). Sponsorship has three aspects: 1) Payment for the cost of the plaque(s), 2) Arranging the dedication ceremony, and 3) agreeing to monitor the plaque and to let IEEE History Center staff know in case the plaque needs to be moved, is no longer secure, etc. Number 3 must be done by the IEEE Section(s) in which the plaque(s) is located, but aspects 1 and 2 can be done by any IEEE Organizational Unit, and they need not be the same one. Please note: your email address and contact information will be masked on the website for privacy reasons. Only IEEE History Center Staff will be able to view the email address. IEEE Organizational Unit(s) paying for milestone plaque(s) Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE Organizational Unit(s) arranging the dedication ceremony Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: Unit: Senior Officer Name: E-mail: IEEE section(s) monitoring the plaque IEEE Section: IEEE Section Chair name: IEEE Section Chair e-mail: IEEE Section: IEEE Section Chair name: IEEE Section Chair e-mail: Milestone proposer(s) Proposer name: Proposer email: Proposer name: Proposer email: Proposer name: Proposer email: Proposer name: Proposer email: Street address(es) and GPS coordinates of the intended milestone plaque site(s). Please include coordinates in decimal format rather than degrees. What is the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s) relation to the achievement? The intended site(s) must have a direct connection with the achievement (e.g. where developed, invented, tested, demonstrated, installed, or operated, etc.). A museum where a device or example of the technology is displayed, or the university where the inventor studied, are not, in themselves, sufficient connection for a milestone plaque. Also, please Describe briefly the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s). (e.g. Is it corporate buildings? Historic Site? Residential? Are there other historical markers already at the site?) Are the original buildings extant? Please provide the details of the mounting, i.e. on the outside of the building, in the ground floor entrance hall, on a plinth on the grounds, etc. How is the intended plaque site protected/secured, and in what ways is it accessible to the public? If visitors to the plaque site will need to go through security, or make an appointment, please give details as well as the contact information visitors will need in order to arrange to visit the plaque. Who is the present owner of the site(s)? In the space below, please describe in detail: the historic significance of the achievement, its importance to the evolution of electrical and computer engineering and science, its importance to regional/national/international development, its benefits to humanity, the ways the achievement was a significant advance rather than an incremental improvement of existing technology. The material submitted here will constitute the main descriptive article on the ETHW website for readers to learn about the milestone. Space is unlimited, and detail is encouraged. Most milestones require 1000 to 1500 words of support, however there is no word limit. The article should be readable by a wide audience that includes practicing engineers, scholars of history, and the general public. Some examples of the text of good milestone articles are First Radio Astronomical Observations Using Very Long Baseline Interferometry] and G3_Facsimile International Standardization of G3 Facsimile (Do not worry about the formatting of the page, IEEE History Center Staff will do that afterwards.) What is the historical significance of the work (its technological, scientific, or social importance)? The era of the early 1960s ushered in a major shift in computing, and the creation of the BASIC programming language was an essential part of that shift. At the time, nearly all use of computers required writing custom software, which was something only scientists and mathematicians tended to learn. Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) had syntax that anyone can learn quickly. Thus, the language became relevant to people in other fields. BASIC language was designed to allow for time-sharing. Previously, expensive computers could only dedicate batch processing for one program at a time. The infamous punch card had a 24-hour-turnaround interface that limited the access to these powerful machines. As a result, all access to the mainframe was controlled by assemblers. BASIC language helped revolutionize access with HP Time-Shared BASIC, an interpreter software system that allowed many ordinary folks, so to speak, to simultaneously access the computer power on external terminals as if it was dedicated.  With accessibility in mind and a desire for the language to become widespread, Professors John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz made the compiler available free of charge which was not common for the time. They also made it available to regional high further spreading computer literacy. To further elaborate the simplicity of the language, Ben Shneiderman, a distinguished CS Professor of the University of Maryland College of Computer, Mathematics, and Natural Science, wrote a children’s introduction to BASIC titled “Let’s Learn BASIC” after being inspired by his 8-year-old daughter.  Pushing accessible computing lead to the technical revolution of personal computing. Young Bill Gates, Paul Allen, Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs all used the BASIC language when they started building their digital empires. Published in the January 1975 issue of Popular Electronics, the Altair 8800 first programming language was Microsoft’s founding product, Altair BASIC.  While MITS expected to only sell a few hundred machines, they had a few thousand orders within weeks and thus the Altair BASIC and Altair 8800 are often attributed to the rapid rise of personal computers years later.  This set the stage for the microcomputer revolution. And for some time, Microsoft’s Quick Basic was the only programming language available for PCs. BASIC also played a role in video game development with Steve Wozniak’s influence. Steve Wozniak, as an attempt to create a language intended primarily for games and educational uses, created Integer BASIC also known as the BASIC interpreter for Apple I and Apple II computers. Beloved Apple games, such as Breakout, was developed with this BASIC derivative. During a 1984 interview for BYTE magazine, Steve Wozniak stated that demonstrating Breakout was the “most satisfying day of my life … I knew that being able to program them [arcade games] in BASIC was going to change the world.”  Not only did BASIC have a part in the history of microcomputers and the hobbyist’s interest in personal PCs, it shared a part in simplifying Microsoft’s GUI development. Writing Windows applications was difficult – often taking months to develop with C. Seeking to find an easier method of GUI development, Microsoft contracted the company Tripod to develop a drag and drop system under the code name Ruby. However, Tripod failed to include a programming language at all! Thus, Microsoft paired its beloved BASIC language with Ruby in what would be known as Visual BASIC. Visual BASIC 1.0 was introduced in 1991 by combining the GUI interface generator Ruby with the programming language BASIC. This merge was used in the creation of Windows 3.0 and multiple subsequent Window versions along with other critical and beloved Microsoft applications, including Microsoft Office. Starting in 1991, this language last stable release was Visual BASIC in 1998. However, Microsoft continued its support a decade later.  In summary, it is hard to quantify the impact the Dartmouth BASIC had in Computer Science. The change of placing power into the hands of the end user over system owners was a monumental improvement in the accessibility of computer power to the world. These new users would benefit hugely from their new ability to harness the computation power in their attack on the problems of their widely diverse fields of endeavor. And influence the next generation of great visionaries like Bill Gates and Steve Jobs. Rather than a punched-card 24-hour-turnaround interface, computer power would be brought to the users on the users’ own terms – to each user’s place and choice of the time. But having achieved convenience of access, it required BASIC – an uncomplicated, familiarly structured language interface – to open the door to so many non-computer professionals. Thus BASIC, the creation of Professors John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz of Dartmouth College, sowed the seed in freeing professionals and students across fields from the need to become, at some level, “computer experts” if they wished to include computational power in their kits of tools. And those tools were taken and modified to push and flourish the growth of innovations brought by the computational power of personal computers. What obstacles (technical, political, geographic) needed to be overcome? Given that the language was meant to be easy to learn, some older computer scientists discredited the importance of BASIC or outright slandered it. Edsger W. Dijkstra wrote in his paper "How do we tell truths that might hurt?" (1975) “It is practically impossible to teach good programming to students that have had a prior exposure to BASIC: as potential programmers they are mentally mutilated beyond hope of regeneration” What features set this work apart from similar achievements? This is the first programming language whose design philosophy emphasized the ease of use. John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz designed the original BASIC to enable students in fields other than science and mathematics to use computers. At the time, nearly all use of computers required writing custom software, which was something only scientists and mathematicians tended to learn. Due to easy of use, this help usher a new wave of computer scientists such as Steve Wozniak and Bill Gate who built their silicon empires on BASIC. Supporting texts and citations to establish the dates, location, and importance of the achievement. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Minimum of five (5), but as many as needed to support the milestone, such as patents, contemporary newspaper articles, journal articles, or chapters in scholarly books. At least one of the references must be from a scholarly book or journal article. 'Scholarly' is defined as peer-reviewed, with references, and published. The full reference, in English, must be uploaded, not just the citation. See below section for details on uploading material to the website. All supporting materials must be in English, or accompanied by an English translation. Back to BASIC: The History, Corruption, and Future of the Language by John G. Kemeny, Thomas E. Kurtz (1985)  Fifty Years of BASIC, the Programming Language That Made Computers Personal. Times Magazine, April 29, 2014 [[File:Times Magazine 50 Years of Basic.pdf]]  Advances in Computers, Volume 24, Marshall C. Yovits  The Internet: A Historical Encyclopedia : Chronology. Vol. 3, Volume 3  March of the outdated machines https://www.newscientist.com/gallery/dn17805-computer-museums-of-the-world/ [[File:MITS Altair 8800 microcomputer 1975.jpg|200px|center|Altair 8800 microcomputer]]  Williams, Gregg; Moore, Rob (December 1984). "The Apple Story / Part 1: Early History". BYTE (interview). pp. A67. Retrieved 23 October 2013. [[File:1984 12 BYTE 09-13 Communications.pdf]]  C++ for VB Programmers, Jonathan Morrison 2000 Supporting materials (supported formats: GIF, JPEG, PNG, PDF, DOC) which can be made publicly available on the IEEE History Center’s website (i.e. unencumbered by copyright, or with the copyright holder’s permission). All supporting materials must be in English, or if not in English, accompanied by an English translation. You must supply the texts or excerpts themselves, not just the references. Images and photographs are especially appreciated, however, it is necessary that you list the copyright owner for these and obtain the copyright owner’s permission to reuse. For documents that are copyright-encumbered, or which you do not have rights to post, email the documents themselves to email@example.com. Please see the Milestone Program Guidelines for more information. To add attachments, first upload the file and add by adding the text: [[Media:(filename)]] For example, if the file you uploaded was named "Milestone Reference.pdf", include the text: [[Media:Milestone Reference.pdf]] in the appropriate field. Fred K. Manasse; The Dartmouth concept: learning in the real world; IEEE Spectrum; Year: 1972, Volume: 9, Issue: 2; Pages: 36 - 40 [[File:The Dartmouth Concept Learning in the Real World.pdf]] Sakari T. Jutila; Giora Baram; A User-Oriented Evaluation of a Time-Shared Computer System; IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics; Year: 1971, Volume: SMC-1, Issue: 4; Pages: 344 - 349 D. A. Roberson; A microprocessor-based portable computer: The IBM 5100; Proceedings of the IEEE; Year: 1976, Volume: 64, Issue: 6; Pages: 994 - 999 [[File:Portable Microcomputer CrossAssembler In BASIC.pdf]] S. W. Conley, Portable Microcomputer Cross-Assembler in BASIC; IEEE Computer; Year: 1975, Volume: 8, Issue: 10; Pages: 32 - 42 Allison, Dennis. "Design notes for TINY BASIC". SIGPLAN Notices. (July 1976) ACM. 11 (7): 25–33. doi:10.1145/987491.987494. The ACM Special Interest Group on Programming Languages (SIGPLAN) reprinted the Tiny Basic design notes from the January 1976 Tiny BASIC Journal Isaak,James; Microsystems Standards for the Personal Computing Network, IEEE Computer; Year: 1978, Volume: 11, Issue: 10; Pages: 60 - 63 [[File:Standards for Personal Computing.pdf]] Applications literature: Microcomputer hardware and software explained; IEEE Spectrum; Year: 1979, Volume: 16, Issue: 2; Pages: 96 - 101 Please email a jpeg or PDF a letter in English, or with English translation, from the site owner(s) giving permission to place IEEE milestone plaque on the property, and a letter (or forwarded email) from the appropriate Section Chair supporting the Milestone application to firstname.lastname@example.org with the subject line "Attention: Milestone Administrator." Note that there are multiple texts of the letter depending on whether an IEEE organizational unit other than the section will be paying for the plaque(s). Submit this proposal to the IEEE History Committee for review. Only check this when the proposal is finished Summary: This is a minor edit Watch this page Cancel Retrieved from "http://ieeemilestones.ethw.org/Milestone-Proposal:BASIC"